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Canine and Phocine Distemper Viruses: Global Spread and Genetic Basis of Jumping Species Barriers

1
Wellcome Wolfson Institute for Experimental Medicine, Queen’s University, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK
2
Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6, Canada
3
Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA
4
Virology Branch, Veterinary Sciences Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast BT4 3SD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100944
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 23 September 2019 / Accepted: 30 September 2019 / Published: 14 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morbilliviruses)
Canine distemper virus (CDV) and phocine distemper (PDV) are closely-related members of the Paramyxoviridae family, genus morbillivirus, in the order Mononegavirales. CDV has a broad host range among carnivores. PDV is thought to be derived from CDV through contact between terrestrial carnivores and seals. PDV has caused extensive mortality in Atlantic seals and other marine mammals, and more recently has spread to the North Pacific Ocean. CDV also infects marine carnivores, and there is evidence of morbillivirus infection of seals and other species in Antarctica. Recently, CDV has spread to felines and other wildlife species in the Serengeti and South Africa. Some CDV vaccines may also have caused wildlife disease. Changes in the virus haemagglutinin (H) protein, particularly the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) receptor binding site, correlate with adaptation to non-canine hosts. Differences in the phosphoprotein (P) gene sequences between disease and non-disease causing CDV strains may relate to pathogenicity in domestic dogs and wildlife. Of most concern are reports of CDV infection and disease in non-human primates raising the possibility of zoonosis. In this article we review the global occurrence of CDV and PDV, and present both historical and genetic information relating to these viruses crossing species barriers. View Full-Text
Keywords: canine distemper virus; phocine distemper virus; morbillivirus; global spread; genetic analysis; species barriers; receptors; climate change canine distemper virus; phocine distemper virus; morbillivirus; global spread; genetic analysis; species barriers; receptors; climate change
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kennedy, J.M.; Earle, J.A.P.; Omar, S.; Abdullah, H.; Nielsen, O.; Roelke-Parker, M.E.; Cosby, S.L. Canine and Phocine Distemper Viruses: Global Spread and Genetic Basis of Jumping Species Barriers. Viruses 2019, 11, 944.

AMA Style

Kennedy JM, Earle JAP, Omar S, Abdullah H, Nielsen O, Roelke-Parker ME, Cosby SL. Canine and Phocine Distemper Viruses: Global Spread and Genetic Basis of Jumping Species Barriers. Viruses. 2019; 11(10):944.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kennedy, Judith M.; Earle, J.A. P.; Omar, Shadia; Abdullah, Hani’ah; Nielsen, Ole; Roelke-Parker, Melody E.; Cosby, S. L. 2019. "Canine and Phocine Distemper Viruses: Global Spread and Genetic Basis of Jumping Species Barriers" Viruses 11, no. 10: 944.

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