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Comparative Pathogenesis of Asian and African-Lineage Zika Virus in Indian Rhesus Macaque’s and Development of a Non-Human Primate Model Suitable for the Evaluation of New Drugs and Vaccines

1
Department of Infectious Disease Research, Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL 35205, USA
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
3
Department of Infectious Disease Research, Southern Research Institute, Frederick, MD 21701, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2018, 10(5), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10050229
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances on Zika Virus Research)
The establishment of a well characterized non-human primate model of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is critical for the development of medical interventions. In this study, challenging Indian rhesus macaques (IRMs) with ZIKV strains of the Asian lineage resulted in dose-dependent peak viral loads between days 2 and 5 post infection and a robust immune response which protected the animals from homologous and heterologous re-challenge. In contrast, viremia in IRMs challenged with an African lineage strain was below the assay’s lower limit of quantitation, and the immune response was insufficient to protect from re-challenge. These results corroborate previous observations but are contrary to reports using other African strains, obviating the need for additional studies to elucidate the variables contributing to the disparities. Nonetheless, the utility of an Asian lineage ZIKV IRM model for countermeasure development was verified by vaccinating animals with a formalin inactivated reference vaccine and demonstrating sterilizing immunity against a subsequent subcutaneous challenge. View Full-Text
Keywords: Zika virus; ZIKV; rhesus macaques; Non-human primates; NHP; infection; natural history; Asian-lineage; African-lineage Zika virus; ZIKV; rhesus macaques; Non-human primates; NHP; infection; natural history; Asian-lineage; African-lineage
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Rayner, J.O.; Kalkeri, R.; Goebel, S.; Cai, Z.; Green, B.; Lin, S.; Snyder, B.; Hagelin, K.; Walters, K.B.; Koide, F. Comparative Pathogenesis of Asian and African-Lineage Zika Virus in Indian Rhesus Macaque’s and Development of a Non-Human Primate Model Suitable for the Evaluation of New Drugs and Vaccines. Viruses 2018, 10, 229.

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