Next Article in Journal
Advances in HIV-1 Vaccine Development
Next Article in Special Issue
Ectromelia Virus Affects Mitochondrial Network Morphology, Distribution, and Physiology in Murine Fibroblasts and Macrophage Cell Line
Previous Article in Journal
Interaction of the Mouse Polyomavirus Capsid Proteins with Importins Is Required for Efficient Import of Viral DNA into the Cell Nucleus
Previous Article in Special Issue
Overexpression of MAP2 and NF-H Associated with Dendritic Pathology in the Spinal Cord of Mice Infected with Rabies Virus
Open AccessReview

Imaging, Tracking and Computational Analyses of Virus Entry and Egress with the Cytoskeleton

1
Division of Virology, Institute of Medical Science, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan
2
Lyda Hill Department of Bioinformatics, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
3
MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
4
Department of Molecular Life Sciences, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040166
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytoskeleton in Virus Infections)
Viruses have a dual nature: particles are “passive substances” lacking chemical energy transformation, whereas infected cells are “active substances” turning-over energy. How passive viral substances convert to active substances, comprising viral replication and assembly compartments has been of intense interest to virologists, cell and molecular biologists and immunologists. Infection starts with virus entry into a susceptible cell and delivers the viral genome to the replication site. This is a multi-step process, and involves the cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins. Likewise, the egress of progeny virus particles from the replication site to the extracellular space is enhanced by the cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins. This overcomes the limitation of thermal diffusion, and transports virions and virion components, often in association with cellular organelles. This review explores how the analysis of viral trajectories informs about mechanisms of infection. We discuss the methodology enabling researchers to visualize single virions in cells by fluorescence imaging and tracking. Virus visualization and tracking are increasingly enhanced by computational analyses of virus trajectories as well as in silico modeling. Combined approaches reveal previously unrecognized features of virus-infected cells. Using select examples of complementary methodology, we highlight the role of actin filaments and microtubules, and their associated motors in virus infections. In-depth studies of single virion dynamics at high temporal and spatial resolutions thereby provide deep insight into virus infection processes, and are a basis for uncovering underlying mechanisms of how cells function. View Full-Text
Keywords: Modeling; simulation; computing; quantitative microscopy; fluorescent virions; microscopy; single particle tracking; trajectory segmentation; click chemistry; tracking; trafficking; membrane traffic; fluorescence microscopy; immunofluorescence microscopy; electron microscopy; microtubule; intracellular transport; machine learning; virus infection mechanisms; DNA virus; RNA virus; enveloped virus; nonenveloped virus; cell biology; virus entry; cytoskeleton; infection; receptor; internalization; innate immunity; virion uncoating; endocytosis; gene expression; gene therapy; actin; kinesin; dynein; myosin; nuclear pore complex; adenovirus; herpesvirus; herpes simplex virus; influenza virus; hepatitis B virus; baculovirus; human immunodeficiency virus HIV; parvovirus; adeno-associated virus AAV; simian virus 40 Modeling; simulation; computing; quantitative microscopy; fluorescent virions; microscopy; single particle tracking; trajectory segmentation; click chemistry; tracking; trafficking; membrane traffic; fluorescence microscopy; immunofluorescence microscopy; electron microscopy; microtubule; intracellular transport; machine learning; virus infection mechanisms; DNA virus; RNA virus; enveloped virus; nonenveloped virus; cell biology; virus entry; cytoskeleton; infection; receptor; internalization; innate immunity; virion uncoating; endocytosis; gene expression; gene therapy; actin; kinesin; dynein; myosin; nuclear pore complex; adenovirus; herpesvirus; herpes simplex virus; influenza virus; hepatitis B virus; baculovirus; human immunodeficiency virus HIV; parvovirus; adeno-associated virus AAV; simian virus 40
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, I.-H.; Burckhardt, C.J.; Yakimovich, A.; Greber, U.F. Imaging, Tracking and Computational Analyses of Virus Entry and Egress with the Cytoskeleton. Viruses 2018, 10, 166.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop