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Open AccessArticle

Genetic Diversity of Paeonia rockii (Flare Tree Peony) Germplasm Accessions Revealed by Phenotypic Traits, EST-SSR Markers and Chloroplast DNA Sequences

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, Peony International Institute, Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation & Molecular Breeding, National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants of Ministry of Education, School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
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Forests 2020, 11(6), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11060672
Received: 16 May 2020 / Revised: 7 June 2020 / Accepted: 10 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Phenotypic Variation in Tree Crops Biodiversity)
Research Highlights: This study, based on the first collection of cultivated Paeonia rockii (flare tree peony, FTP) germplasm across the main distribution area by our breeding desires, comprehensively evaluates these accessions by using phenotypic traits, expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and chloroplast DNA sequences (cpDNA). The results show that these accessions collected selectively by us can represent the genetic background information of FTP as a germplasm of tree crops. Background and Objectives: FTP has high cultural, ornamental and medicinal value traditionally, as well as recently presenting a significance as an emerging edible oil with high α-linolenic acid contents in the seeds. The objectives of this study are to reveal the characteristics of the genetic diversity of FTP, as well as to provide scientific suggestions for the utilization of tree peony breeding and the conservation of germplasm resource. Materials and Methods: Based on the phenotypic traits, EST-SSR markers and chloroplast DNA sequence variation, we studied the diversity of a newly established population of 282 FTP accessions that were collected and propagated by ourselves in our breeding project in recent years. Results: (1) There was an abundant variation in phenotype of the accessions, and the phenotypic variation was evenly distributed within the population, without significant hierarchical structure, (2) the EST-SSR data showed that these 282 accessions had relatively high genetic diversity, in which a total of 185 alleles were detected in 34 pairs of primers. The 282 accessions were divided into three distinct groups, and (3) the chloroplast DNA sequences (cpDNA) data indicated that these accessions had a higher genetic diversity than the population level and a lower genetic diversity than the species level of wild P. rockii, and the existing spatial genetic structure of these accessions can be divided into two branches. Conclusions: From the results of the three analyses, we found that these accessions can fully reflect the genetic background information of FTP germplasm resources, so their protection and utilization will be of great significance for genetic improvement of woody peonies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Paeonia rockii (flare tree peony) germplasm accessions; phenotypic traits; EST-SSR markers; chloroplast DNA sequences; genetic diversity Paeonia rockii (flare tree peony) germplasm accessions; phenotypic traits; EST-SSR markers; chloroplast DNA sequences; genetic diversity
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Guo, X.; Cheng, F.; Zhong, Y. Genetic Diversity of Paeonia rockii (Flare Tree Peony) Germplasm Accessions Revealed by Phenotypic Traits, EST-SSR Markers and Chloroplast DNA Sequences. Forests 2020, 11, 672.

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