Next Article in Journal
Experimental Study of Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene Random Copolymer and Rice-Husk-Based Biocomposite by Using Nanoindentation
Next Article in Special Issue
The Adjunctive Use of Leucocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin in Periodontal Endosseous and Furcation Defects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
A New Method for the Calculation of Characteristics of Disc Springs with Trapezoidal Cross-Sections and Rounded Edges
Previous Article in Special Issue
Spectrometric Analysis of the Wear from Metallic and Ceramic Dental Implants following Insertion: An In Vitro Study
 
 
Article

In Vitro Toxicity of Bone Graft Materials to Human Mineralizing Cells

1
Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, NY 11794-2275, USA
2
Department of Oral Biology and Pathology, School of Dental Medicine, Stony Book University, Stony Brook, New York, NY 11794-8702, USA
3
Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, NY 11794-8700, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Montserrat Colilla
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051955
Received: 17 January 2022 / Revised: 24 February 2022 / Accepted: 1 March 2022 / Published: 6 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Dental Materials for Periodontal and Bone Regeneration)
Bone graft materials from synthetic, bovine, and human sources were analyzed and tested for in vitro cytotoxicity on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and osteosarcoma cells (Saos-2). Raman spectroscopy indicated significant amounts of collagen only in human bone-derived materials, where the mineral to protein ratio was 3.55 ± 0.45, consistent with bone. X-ray fluorescence revealed tungsten (W) concentrations of 463 ± 73, 400 ± 77, and 92 ± 42 ppm in synthetic, bovine, and human bone chips, respectively. When these chips were added to DPSCs on tissue culture plastic, the doubling times after two days were the same as the controls, 16.5 ± 0.5 h. Those cultured with synthetic or bovine chips were 96.5 ± 8.1 and 25.2 ± 1.4 h, respectively. Saos-2 was more sensitive. During the first two days with allogeneic or bovine graft materials, cell numbers declined. When DPSC were cultured on collagen, allogeneic and bovine bone chips did not increase doubling times. We propose cytotoxicity was associated with tungsten, where only the concentration in human bone chips was below 184 ppm, the value reported as cytotoxic in vitro. Cells on collagen were resistant to bone chips, possibly due to tungsten adsorption by collagen. View Full-Text
Keywords: collagen; dental pulp stem cells; hydroxyapatite; osteosarcoma; Raman spectrum analysis; tungsten collagen; dental pulp stem cells; hydroxyapatite; osteosarcoma; Raman spectrum analysis; tungsten
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, F.; Li, K.; Fu, S.; Cuiffo, M.; Simon, M.; Rafailovich, M.; Romanos, G.E. In Vitro Toxicity of Bone Graft Materials to Human Mineralizing Cells. Materials 2022, 15, 1955. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051955

AMA Style

Yang F, Li K, Fu S, Cuiffo M, Simon M, Rafailovich M, Romanos GE. In Vitro Toxicity of Bone Graft Materials to Human Mineralizing Cells. Materials. 2022; 15(5):1955. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051955

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Fan, Kao Li, Shi Fu, Michael Cuiffo, Marcia Simon, Miriam Rafailovich, and Georgios E. Romanos. 2022. "In Vitro Toxicity of Bone Graft Materials to Human Mineralizing Cells" Materials 15, no. 5: 1955. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051955

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop