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Article

3D-Printed HA-Based Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration: Microporosity, Osteoconduction and Osteoclastic Resorption

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Center of Dental Medicine, Oral Biotechnology & Bioengineering, University of Zurich, Plattenstrasse 11, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland
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Center of Dental Medicine, Division of Dental Biomaterials, Clinic for Reconstructive Dentistry, University of Zurich, Plattenstrasse 11, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland
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CABMM, Center for Applied Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Iulian Vasile Antoniac
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041433
Received: 14 December 2021 / Revised: 4 February 2022 / Accepted: 9 February 2022 / Published: 15 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
Additive manufacturing enables the realization of the macro- and microarchitecture of bone substitutes. The macroarchitecture is determined by the bone defect and its shape makes the implant patient specific. The preset distribution of the 3D-printed material in the macroarchitecture defines the microarchitecture. At the lower scale, the nanoarchitecture of 3D-printed scaffolds is dependent on the post-processing methodology such as the sintering temperature. However, the role of microarchitecture and nanoarchitecture of scaffolds for osteoconduction is still elusive. To address these aspects in more detail, we produced lithography-based osteoconductive scaffolds from hydroxyapatite (HA) of identical macro- and microarchitecture and varied their nanoarchitecture, such as microporosity, by increasing the maximum sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1400 °C. The different scaffold types were characterized for microporosity, compression strength, and nanoarchitecture. The in vivo results, based on a rabbit calvarial defect model showed that bony ingrowth, as a measure of osteoconduction, was independent from scaffold’s microporosity. The same applies to in vitro osteoclastic resorbability, since on all tested scaffold types, osteoclasts formed on their surfaces and resorption pits upon exposure to mature osteoclasts were visible. Thus, for wide-open porous HA-based scaffolds, a low degree of microporosity and high mechanical strength yield optimal osteoconduction and creeping substitution. Based on our study, non-unions, the major complication during demanding bone regeneration procedures, could be prevented. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroxyapatite; microporosity; osteoconduction; macroarchitecture; microarchitecture; nanoarchitecture; bone substitute; additive manufacturing; 3D printing; ceramics; tricalcium phosphate hydroxyapatite; microporosity; osteoconduction; macroarchitecture; microarchitecture; nanoarchitecture; bone substitute; additive manufacturing; 3D printing; ceramics; tricalcium phosphate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghayor, C.; Bhattacharya, I.; Guerrero, J.; Özcan, M.; Weber, F.E. 3D-Printed HA-Based Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration: Microporosity, Osteoconduction and Osteoclastic Resorption. Materials 2022, 15, 1433. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041433

AMA Style

Ghayor C, Bhattacharya I, Guerrero J, Özcan M, Weber FE. 3D-Printed HA-Based Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration: Microporosity, Osteoconduction and Osteoclastic Resorption. Materials. 2022; 15(4):1433. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041433

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ghayor, Chafik, Indranil Bhattacharya, Julien Guerrero, Mutlu Özcan, and Franz E. Weber. 2022. "3D-Printed HA-Based Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration: Microporosity, Osteoconduction and Osteoclastic Resorption" Materials 15, no. 4: 1433. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041433

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