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Process Design for a Production of Sustainable Materials from Post-Production Clay

Institute of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Material Engineering and Physics, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
National Research Center (NRC), Department of Refractories, Ceramic and Building Materials, Dokki 12311, Egypt
Department of Environmental Engineering, Nigde Omer Halisdemir University, 51240 Nigde, Turkey
The Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland
The Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute—National Research Institute, Radzików, 05-870 Błonie, Poland
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fernando Pacheco Torgal
Materials 2021, 14(4), 953;
Received: 11 January 2021 / Revised: 4 February 2021 / Accepted: 8 February 2021 / Published: 18 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies for Sustainable Materials)
Alkali activated cement (AAC) can be manufactured from industrial by-products to achieve goals of “zero-waste” production. We discuss in detail the AAC production process from (waste) post-production clay, which serves as the calcium-rich material. The effect of different parameters on the changes in properties of the final product, including morphology, phase formation, compressive strength, resistance to the high temperature, and long-term curing is presented. The drying and grinding of clay are required, even if both processes are energy-intensive; the reduction of particle size and the increase of specific surface area is crucial. Furthermore, calcination at 750 °C ensure approximately 20% higher compressive strength of final AAC in comparison to calcination performed at 700 °C. It resulted from the different ratio of phases: Calcite, mullite, quartz, gehlenite, and wollastonite in the final AAC. The type of activators (NaOH, NaOH:KOH mixtures, KOH) affected AAC mechanical properties, significantly. Sodium activators enabled obtaining higher values of strength. However, if KOH is required, the supplementation of initial materials with fly ash or metakaolin could improve the mechanical properties and durability of AAC, even c.a. 28%. The presented results confirm the possibility of recycling post-production clay from the Raciszyn II Jurassic limestone deposit. View Full-Text
Keywords: aluminosilicates; alkali activator; calcination; compressive strength aluminosilicates; alkali activator; calcination; compressive strength
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MDPI and ACS Style

Łach, M.; Gado, R.A.; Marczyk, J.; Ziejewska, C.; Doğan-Sağlamtimur, N.; Mikuła, J.; Szechyńska-Hebda, M.; Hebda, M. Process Design for a Production of Sustainable Materials from Post-Production Clay. Materials 2021, 14, 953.

AMA Style

Łach M, Gado RA, Marczyk J, Ziejewska C, Doğan-Sağlamtimur N, Mikuła J, Szechyńska-Hebda M, Hebda M. Process Design for a Production of Sustainable Materials from Post-Production Clay. Materials. 2021; 14(4):953.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Łach, Michał, Reda A. Gado, Joanna Marczyk, Celina Ziejewska, Neslihan Doğan-Sağlamtimur, Janusz Mikuła, Magdalena Szechyńska-Hebda, and Marek Hebda. 2021. "Process Design for a Production of Sustainable Materials from Post-Production Clay" Materials 14, no. 4: 953.

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