Application of Shape Memory Alloys in Retrofitting of Masonry and Heritage Structures Based on Their Vulnerability Revealed in the Bam 2003 Earthquake
2. Seismic Behaviour of the Structures in Bam Earthquake
- The additional alterations to the walls, especially in recent restorations, that resulted in differences in the density and reactivity to vibrations of different layers of unloaded earth construction in the walls;
- Extensive termite infestation, as well as loss of clay cohesion due to deterioration and excessive drying out, all combined with the extremely high-frequency earthquake vibrations in such a way that many walls virtually broke due to the loss of cohesion and sinking of their clay interior cores.
- Inadequate connections between walls and roofing in masonry and steel-framed buildings;
- The vaulted ceiling lacks consistency;
- Weak portions around the dome’s junction line and the residual flat part of the roof;
- High weight of the roof;
- Inadequate retrofitting of the historical heritage;
- Poor quality in manpower and construction work;
- Inadequate design parameters;
- Lack of using flexible and high-strength reinforcing materials.
3. Basics of Shape Memory Alloys
- The steel jacketing approach has certain drawbacks, including the ability to rust and the difficulty of installing by machinery. The grouted area, which is the gap between the concrete void and the steel jacket, clogs up, resulting in a column inconsistency .
- FRP materials have a low elastic modulus (10 times that of steel), lack of ductility, and inferior shear strength .
4. Shape Memory Alloys Application in Masonry Structures and Historical Buildings
- Reducing the earthquake forces that could be exerted on the structure;
- Improving the existing building to resist earthquake load through the change in the structural system or enhancing the elements’ strength.
- Vibration control systems;
- Base isolation devices;
- Energy dissipation devices;
- Active vibration control;
- Semi-active vibration control.
4.1. Experimental Investigations
4.1.1. Experimental Investigation of Retrofitted Half-Brick Walls with Cu-Al-Mn SMA Bars
- When compared to the URM specimen, both the steel-based and SMA-based specimens demonstrated considerable increases in strength and ductility. The steel-based specimen experienced pinching in the moderate displacement range, but the SMA-based specimen exhibited nothing. These findings illustrate the suitability and effectiveness of the current Cu-Al-Mn SMA bars as a partial substitution for steel bars in retrofitting URM walls.
- To reproduce the experimental data, finite element (FE) models were created and evaluated. The created FE models identified the whole history of all the specimens quite accurately. The inelastic elongation of the steel bars was found to be the major cause of pinching in the FE study of the steel-based specimen. It was also demonstrated that the superelastic feature of the SMA bars was beneficial in preventing pinching.
- When reinforcing bars were installed at the underside of the wall specimen, the steel-based model displayed pinching even in the minor deformation range, while the SMA-based model did not exhibit such deformation.
4.1.2. Experimental Investigations on Pre-Tensioned SMA Wires on URM Walls
- By requiring the prescribed pre-tension to reach the super-elastic constitutive law plateau, no extra stress is transmitted to the masonry at higher strain levels. As a result, no springs are required to be included in the computational model, with the potential of mutual deformations between the clay bricks, i.e., energy absorption.
- The hysteresis loop of the hyper-elastic stress–strain relation dissipates more energy.
- The ties may re-centre themselves in their original location with no residual displacement.
4.2. Numerical Modelling of Retrofitted Structures with SMA Devices
4.2.1. Post-Tensioned Iron-Based SMA Strips in Retrofitting of URM Walls
4.2.2. SMA Cables in Seismic Protection of a Historic Brickwork Church in Northern Italy
4.3. Implementation on Real Structures
4.3.1. SMA-Based Device in Retrofitting of San Paolo Eremita Church in Southern Italy
4.3.2. SMA-Based Device in the Restoration of the Bell Tower of San Giorgio at Trignano
5. Retrofit Techniques with SMA-Based Device for Masonry and Adobe Buildings
- Lack of anchorage;
- Anchor failure;
- In-plane failures;
- Out-of-plane failure;
- Combined in-plane and out-of-plane effects;
- Diaphragm-related failures.
- The rebars must be entirely encased by building materials (for example, mortar), and the strain connection between the mortar and the rebar must be such that the applied loads are carried in a compound way.
- Vertical bars with a minimum value of 130 mm2 should be placed at each junction of two or more walls, as well as at the ends of the walls. In addition, for the length of the wall, at least 130 mm2 of vertical rebars shall be inserted, with a maximum horizontal spacing of 1200 mm (across the wall).
- A minimum horizontal bar with a cross-sectional area of 130 mm2 should be considered for each of the following: above the wall and at the point of continuous connection of the ceiling or floor to the wall; at the bottom of the wall or above the foundations if the foundations are attached to the walls; concentrated at intervals of up to 3 meters or uniform in height.
- The minimum yield strength of the rebars (fy) and the minimum characteristic strength of concrete (fc) must be equal to 240 and 20 MPa, respectively.
- Using rebars with a diameter smaller than 10 mm is not allowed.
6. Conclusions and Discussion
- Preserving the historical artefact’s construction rationale;
- Utilising materials and processes that are reversible.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Earthquake||Casualties||Damaged Masonry Buildings|
|Van, Turkey, 2011||604||23.33% of buildings heavily damaged and collapsed|
|Bam, Iran, 2003||30,000–40,000||85% of the infrastructure demolished|
|Bingöl, Turkey 2003||177||3214 buildings heavily damaged|
|El Salvador, 2001||1100||150,000|
|Southern Peru, 2001||81||25,000|
|Property||Unit a||Ni-Ti b||Fe-Based||Steel|
|Specific heat capacity||J/kg °C||450–620||540||420–510|
|Thermal conductivity||w/m °C||8.6–18||8.4||8.9–16.2|
|Ultimate tensile strength||MPa||895–1900||680–1200||505|
|Energy Dissipation (KJ)|
|Number of Cycles||Without SMA||(a)||(b)||(c)||(d)||(e)||(f)|
|Total dissipated energy (KJ)||525||767||803||851||947||988||1044|
|Retrofitting Method||Expected Outcomes||References|
|SMA-based device between roof and foundation||Higher equivalent modulus of elasticity (Eeq) and energy dissipation might lead to protecting of the URM walls during an earthquake.|||
|SMA-based device between supportive beam (under the wall) and foundation||Minimize the displacements of URM walls from failure to levels of minor/moderate damage.|||
|SMA-based strips in the shape of crossings implemented in wall||127.9% increase of the stiffness of the wall and higher energy dissipation capacity.|||
|SMA-based device between roof and column||Providing a stabilized behaviour during an earthquake.|||
|SMA-based bolts and connectors||Providing excellent re-centring abilities and moderate energy dissipation capability with an equivalent viscous damping up to 17.5% with 94% deformation recovery.||[74,75]|
|SMA-based bracing system||Exhibiting greater initial stiffness (resulting in approximately 15% greater initial frequency) with less than half the weight and supplemental re-centring capability, which may lead to sustaining higher inelastic deformations without jeopardizing the structural system’s collapse safety or seismic resistance at the end of the earthquake.|||
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Tabrizikahou, A.; Hadzima-Nyarko, M.; Kuczma, M.; Lozančić, S. Application of Shape Memory Alloys in Retrofitting of Masonry and Heritage Structures Based on Their Vulnerability Revealed in the Bam 2003 Earthquake. Materials 2021, 14, 4480. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164480
Tabrizikahou A, Hadzima-Nyarko M, Kuczma M, Lozančić S. Application of Shape Memory Alloys in Retrofitting of Masonry and Heritage Structures Based on Their Vulnerability Revealed in the Bam 2003 Earthquake. Materials. 2021; 14(16):4480. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164480Chicago/Turabian Style
Tabrizikahou, Alireza, Marijana Hadzima-Nyarko, Mieczysław Kuczma, and Silva Lozančić. 2021. "Application of Shape Memory Alloys in Retrofitting of Masonry and Heritage Structures Based on Their Vulnerability Revealed in the Bam 2003 Earthquake" Materials 14, no. 16: 4480. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164480