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Open AccessArticle

Interface Behavior and Interface Tensile Strength of a Hardened Concrete Mixture with a Coarse Aggregate for Additive Manufacturing

1
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Machine and Industrial Design, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno, Czech Republic
2
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Masonry Structures, Czech Technical University in Prague, Thákurova 2077/7, 166 29 Prague, Czech Republic
3
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Computer Aided Engineering and Computer Science, Brno University of Technology, Veveří 331/95, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic
4
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Physical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225147
Received: 2 October 2020 / Revised: 6 November 2020 / Accepted: 11 November 2020 / Published: 15 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete 3D Printing and Digitally-Aided Fabrication)
3D concrete printing technology (3DCP) is a relatively new technology that was first established in the 1990s. The main weakness of the technology is the interface strength between the extruded layers, which are deposited at different time intervals. Consequently, the interface strength is assumed to vary in relation to the time of concrete casting. The proposed experimental study investigated the behavior of a hardened concrete mixture containing coarse aggregates that were up to 8 mm in size, which is rather unusual for 3DCP technology. The resulting direct tensile strength at the layer interface was investigated for various time intervals of deposition from the initial mixing of concrete components. To better understand the material behavior at the layer interface area, computed tomography (CT) scanning was conducted, where the volumetric and area analysis enabled validation of the pore size and count distribution in accordance with the layer deposition process. The analyzed CT data related the macroscopic anisotropy and the resulting crack pattern to the temporal and spatial variability that is inherent to the additive manufacturing process at construction scales while providing additional insights into the porosity formation during the extrusion of the cementitious composite. The observed results contribute to previous investigations in this field by demonstrating the causal relationships, namely, how the interface strength development is determined by time, deposition process, and pore size distribution. Moreover, in regard to the printability of the proposed coarse aggregate mixture, the specific time interval is presented and its interplay with interface roughness and porosity is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3DCP; cementitious composite; concrete testing; concrete deposition; interface behavior; digital concrete; extrusion manufacturing; computed tomography; construction-scale 3D printing; large-scale additive manufacturing; Portland cement concrete; extrusion-based concrete print 3DCP; cementitious composite; concrete testing; concrete deposition; interface behavior; digital concrete; extrusion manufacturing; computed tomography; construction-scale 3D printing; large-scale additive manufacturing; Portland cement concrete; extrusion-based concrete print
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vespalec, A.; Novák, J.; Kohoutková, A.; Vosynek, P.; Podroužek, J.; Škaroupka, D.; Zikmund, T.; Kaiser, J.; Paloušek, D. Interface Behavior and Interface Tensile Strength of a Hardened Concrete Mixture with a Coarse Aggregate for Additive Manufacturing. Materials 2020, 13, 5147. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225147

AMA Style

Vespalec A, Novák J, Kohoutková A, Vosynek P, Podroužek J, Škaroupka D, Zikmund T, Kaiser J, Paloušek D. Interface Behavior and Interface Tensile Strength of a Hardened Concrete Mixture with a Coarse Aggregate for Additive Manufacturing. Materials. 2020; 13(22):5147. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225147

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vespalec, Arnošt; Novák, Josef; Kohoutková, Alena; Vosynek, Petr; Podroužek, Jan; Škaroupka, David; Zikmund, Tomáš; Kaiser, Josef; Paloušek, David. 2020. "Interface Behavior and Interface Tensile Strength of a Hardened Concrete Mixture with a Coarse Aggregate for Additive Manufacturing" Materials 13, no. 22: 5147. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225147

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