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Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Achievable Contrast Features in Computed Tomography Observing the Growth of a 4H-SiC Bulk Crystal

1
Fraunhofer Development Center X-ray Technology EZRT, 90768 Fürth, Germany
2
Crystal Growth Lab, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3652; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223652
Received: 27 September 2019 / Revised: 1 November 2019 / Accepted: 4 November 2019 / Published: 6 November 2019
Today the physical vapor transport process is regularly applied for the growth of bulk SiC crystals. Due to the required high temperature of up to 2400 °C, and low gas pressure of several Mbar inside the crucible, the systems are encapsulated by several layers for heating, cooling and isolation inhibiting the operator from observing the growth. Also, the crucible itself is fully encapsulated to avoid impurities from being inserted into the crystal or disturbing the temperature field distribution. Thus, once the crucible has been set up with SiC powder and the seed crystal, the visible access to the progress of growth is limited. In the past, X-ray radiography has allowed this limitation to be overcome by placing the crucible in between an X-ray source and a radiographic film. Recently these two-dimensional attenuation signals have been extended to three-dimensional density distribution by the technique of computed tomography (CT). Beside the classic X-ray attenuation signal dominated by photoelectric effect, Compton effect and Rayleigh scattering, X-ray diffraction resulting in the crystalline structure of the 4H-SiC superimposes the reconstructed result. In this contribution, the achievable material contrast related to the level of X-ray energy and the absorption effects is analyzed using different CT systems with energies from 125 kV to 9 MeV. Furthermore the X-ray diffraction influence is shown by the comparison between the advanced helical-CT method and the classical 3D-CT. View Full-Text
Keywords: computed tomography; PVT growth process surveillance; 3D in situ analysis; helical-CT; Bragg diffraction computed tomography; PVT growth process surveillance; 3D in situ analysis; helical-CT; Bragg diffraction
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Salamon, M.; Arzig, M.; Wellmann, P.J.; Uhlmann, N. Comparison of Achievable Contrast Features in Computed Tomography Observing the Growth of a 4H-SiC Bulk Crystal. Materials 2019, 12, 3652.

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