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Open AccessReview

Minor Review: An Overview of a Synthetic Nanophase Bone Substitute

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
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Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
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DePuy Synthes Joint Reconstruction, Warsaw, IN 46582, USA
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Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
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Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5, Canada
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Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Hospital, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
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Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
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Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1556; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091556
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Substitute Materials)
Material is reviewed that consists of reconstituted collagen fibril gel mineralized in a manner that produces biomimetically sized nanoapatites intimately associated with the fibrils. This gel is formed into usable shapes with a modulus and strength that allow it to be surgically press fitted into bony defects. The design paradigm for the material is that the nanoapatites will dissolve into soluble Ca2+ as the collagen is degraded into RGD-containing peptide fragments due to osteoclastic action. This is intended to signal to the osteoclasts to continue removing the material in a biomimetic fashion similar to bony remodeling. Preliminary experiments in a subcutaneous rat model show that the material is biocompatible with respect to inflammatory and immunogenic responses, and that it supports cellular invasion. Preliminary experiments in a critical-sized mandibular defect in rats show that the material is resorbable and functions well as a bone morphogenetic 2 (BMP-2) carrier. We have produced a range of mechanical and biological responses by varying mechanical and chemical processing of the material. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomaterial; bone substitute; collagen; mineral; resorbable; load bearing biomaterial; bone substitute; collagen; mineral; resorbable; load bearing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Eppell, S.J.; Tong, W.; McMasters, J.; Soenjaya, Y.; Barbu, A.M.; Ko, A.; Baskin, J.Z. Minor Review: An Overview of a Synthetic Nanophase Bone Substitute. Materials 2018, 11, 1556.

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