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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Tuning Nano-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Content in Novel Rechargeable Antibacterial Dental Sealant

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Program in Dental Biomedical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
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Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Dammam 34212, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Substitutive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Dammam 34212, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Advanced Oral Sciences and Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
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Center for Stem Cell Biology & Regenerative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
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Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091544
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive and Therapeutic Dental Materials)
Dental sealants with antibacterial and remineralizing properties are promising for caries prevention among children and adolescents. The application of nanotechnology and polymer development have enabled nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) to emerge as anti-caries strategies via resin-based dental materials. Our objectives in this study were to (1) incorporate different mass fractions of NACP into a parental rechargeable and antibacterial sealant; (2) investigate the effects on mechanical performance, and (3) assess how the variations in NACP concentration would affect the calcium (Ca) and phosphate (PO4) ion release and re-chargeability over time. NACP were synthesized using a spray-drying technique and incorporated at mass fractions of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. Flexural strength, flexural modulus, and flowability were assessed for mechanical and physical performance. Ca and PO4 ion release were measured over 70 days, and three ion recharging cycles were performed for re-chargeability. The impact of the loading percentage of NACP upon the sealant’s performance was evaluated, and the optimized formulation was eventually selected. The experimental sealant at 20% NACP had flexural strength and flexural modulus of 79.5 ± 8.4 MPa and 4.2 ± 0.4 GPa, respectively, while the flexural strength and flexural modulus of a commercial sealant control were 70.7 ± 5.5 MPa (p > 0.05) and 3.3 ± 0.5 GPa (p < 0.05), respectively. A significant reduction in flow was observed in the experimental sealant at 30% NACP (p < 0.05). Increasing the NACP mass fraction increased the ion release. The sealant formulation with NACP at 20% displayed desirable mechanical performance and ideal flow and handling properties, and also showed high levels of long-term Ca and PO4 ion release and excellent recharge capabilities. The findings provide fundamental data for the development of a new generation of antibacterial and rechargeable Ca and PO4 dental sealants to promote remineralization and inhibit caries. View Full-Text
Keywords: dental sealant; resin sealant; calcium phosphate nanoparticles; long-term ion release; remineralization; ion recharge dental sealant; resin sealant; calcium phosphate nanoparticles; long-term ion release; remineralization; ion recharge
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Ibrahim, M.S.; AlQarni, F.D.; Al-Dulaijan, Y.A.; Weir, M.D.; Oates, T.W.; Xu, H.H.K.; Melo, M.A.S. Tuning Nano-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Content in Novel Rechargeable Antibacterial Dental Sealant. Materials 2018, 11, 1544.

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