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Open AccessArticle

Almond Shell as a Microporous Carbon Source for Sustainable Cathodes in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

Dpto. Química Inorgánica e Ingeniería Química, Instituto de Química Fina y Nanoquímica, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
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Materials 2018, 11(8), 1428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081428
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Advanced Biomass-Derived Carbon Materials)
A microporous carbon derived from biomass (almond shells) and activated with phosphoric acid was analysed as a cathodic matrix in Li–S batteries. By studying the parameters of the carbonization process of this biomass residue, certain conditions were determined to obtain a high surface area of carbon (967 m2 g−1) and high porosity (0.49 cm3 g−1). This carbon was capable of accommodating up to 60% by weight of sulfur, infiltrated by the disulphide method. The C–S composite released an initial specific capacity of 915 mAh g−1 in the Li–S cell at a current density of 100 mA g−1 with a high retention capacity of 760 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles and a coulombic efficiency close to 100%. The good performance of the composite was also observed under higher current rates (up to 1000 mA g−1). The overall electrochemical behaviour of this microporous carbon acting as a sulfur host reinforces the possibility of using biomass residues as sustainable sources of materials for energy storage. View Full-Text
Keywords: almond; agricultural waste; biomass-derived carbon; sulfur composite; lithium–sulfur batteries almond; agricultural waste; biomass-derived carbon; sulfur composite; lithium–sulfur batteries
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MDPI and ACS Style

Benítez, A.; González-Tejero, M.; Caballero, Á.; Morales, J. Almond Shell as a Microporous Carbon Source for Sustainable Cathodes in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries. Materials 2018, 11, 1428.

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