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Materials 2018, 11(11), 2211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11112211

Valorization of Tomato Processing by-Products: Fatty Acid Extraction and Production of Bio-Based Materials

1
Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, Américo Vespucio 49, E-41092 Seville, Spain
2
Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla-CSIC, Avenida Reina Mercedes 10, 41012 Seville, Spain
3
Instituto de la Grasa, CSIC, 41006 Seville, Spain
4
Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropicaly Mediterránea La Mayora, Universidad de Málaga-CSIC, E-29071 Málaga, Spain
5
Departamento de Biología Molecular y Bioquímica, Universidad de Málaga, E-29071 Málaga, Spain
6
Smart Materials, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 16163 Genova, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
PDF [867 KB, uploaded 7 November 2018]

Abstract

A method consisting of the alkaline hydrolysis of tomato pomace by-products has been optimized to obtain a mixture of unsaturated and polyhydroxylated fatty acids as well as a non-hydrolysable secondary residue. Reaction rates and the activation energy of the hydrolysis were calculated to reduce costs associated with chemicals and energy consumption. Lipid and non-hydrolysable fractions were chemically (infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS)) and thermally (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)) characterized. In addition, the fatty acid mixture was used to produce cutin-based polyesters. Freestanding films were prepared by non-catalyzed melt-polycondensation and characterized by Attenuated Total Reflected-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), DSC, TGA, Water Contact Angles (WCA), and tensile tests. These bio-based polymers were hydrophobic, insoluble, infusible, and thermally stable, their physical properties being tunable by controlling the presence of unsaturated fatty acids and oxygen in the reaction. The participation of an oxidative crosslinking side reaction is proposed to be responsible for such modifications.
Keywords: agricultural by-product; tomato pomace; valorization; fatty acids; bio-based polymers agricultural by-product; tomato pomace; valorization; fatty acids; bio-based polymers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Benítez, J.J.; Castillo, P.M.; del Río, J.C.; León-Camacho, M.; Domínguez, E.; Heredia, A.; Guzmán-Puyol, S.; Athanassiou, A.; Heredia-Guerrero, J.A. Valorization of Tomato Processing by-Products: Fatty Acid Extraction and Production of Bio-Based Materials. Materials 2018, 11, 2211.

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