# A Critical Review on the Estimation Techniques of the Solar PV Cell’s Unknown Parameters

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

- The combination of both analytical and numerical techniques (combined technique) are observed to be less time-consuming compared to other techniques that are used for parameter estimation of solar PV systems;
- The combined technique has the highest accuracy compared to others in the existing literature;
- In analytical algorithms, the number of non-linear exponential terms can be reduced by four times compared to the existing literature. Hence, the combined technique is computationally efficient;
- The shunt resistance (${R}_{sh}$) should be considered as one of the iteration parameters, which makes the approach more realistic;
- The application of the nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) value in the PV parameter estimation strengthens the accuracy in varying temperatures and irradiance conditions. It is noticed that, on average, a 10% performance degradation (PD) is present in the MPP obtained at ${T}_{cell}$ compared to ${T}_{amb}$.

## 2. Solar PV Modelling

#### 2.1. Single-Diode Model

#### 2.2. Double-Diode Model

#### 2.3. Three-Diode Model

## 3. Algorithms Reported So Far

#### 3.1. Analytical Algorithms

#### 3.2. Non-Analytical Algorithms

#### 3.3. Meta-Heuristic Approach

- ${x}_{i}$ is the position of the $ith$ foodTable;
- l is the lower boundary;
- u is the upper boundary;
- r is the random vector in (0, 1).

## 4. Performance Analysis of the Reported Algorithms

#### Effect of Temperature and Irradiance

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 5.**V–P characteristics of 315 Wp PV module applying different algorithms (

**a**) at 25 $\xb0$C and (

**b**) 45 $\xb0$C.

**Figure 6.**(

**a**) V–P characteristics when temperature changes at 1000 W/m${}^{2}$ irradiance. (

**b**) V–I characteristic when irradiance changes at 25 $\xb0$C [15].

Literature | Year | Algorithm | ${\mathit{I}}_{\mathit{p}\mathit{h}}$ (A) | ${\mathit{I}}_{0}$($\mathsf{\mu}$A) | ${\mathit{R}}_{\mathit{s}\mathit{h}}$($\mathbf{\Omega}$) | ${\mathit{R}}_{\mathit{s}}$($\mathbf{\Omega}$) | n | No. of Steps | RMSE |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

[42] | 2019 | EA | 0.76080000 | 0.32230000 | 53.76340000 | 0.036400000 | 1.4837000000 | - | 1.0072 × 10${}^{-2}$ |

[43] | 2018 | NA | 0.76074014 | 0.31285196 | 55.90738000 | 0.036615485 | 1.477729500 | - | 7.7301 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[44] | 2020 | EA | 0.76038466 | 0.23082625 | 53.67788300 | 0.037991668 | 1.447929015 | - | 9.7505 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[45] | 2019 | EA | 0.76080000 | 0.32300000 | 53.71850000 | 0.036400000 | 1.481200000 | - | 9.8602 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[46] | 2017 | EA | 0.76080000 | 0.32280000 | 53.75950000 | 0.036400000 | 1.481100000 | - | 9.8603 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[47] | 2020 | EA | 0.76077600 | 0.32302100 | 53.71852000 | 0.036377000 | 1.481184000 | - | 9.8602 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[48] | 2019 | NA + EA | 0.76078797 | 0.31068450 | 52.88979426 | 0.036546950 | 1.477267780 | - | 7.7301 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[49] | 2019 | EA | 0.76077552 | 0.32302000 | 53.71852000 | 0.036370000 | 1.481108170 | - | 9.8602 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[50] | 2019 | EA | 0.76079000 | 0.31062000 | 52.88500000 | 0.036548000 | 1.477100000 | - | 7.7300 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[51] | 2019 | EA | 0.76080000 | 0.32300000 | 53.71850000 | 0.036400000 | 1.481200000 | - | 9.8602 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[52] | 2019 | EA | 0.76077562 | 0.32301700 | 53.71821748 | 0.036377160 | 1.481182200 | - | 9.8602 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[53] | 2019 | EA | 0.76078000 | 0.32302000 | 53.71852000 | 0.036380000 | 1.481180000 | - | 9.8602 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[54] | 2019 | EA | 0.76080000 | 0.32300000 | 53.71850000 | 0.036400000 | 1.481200000 | - | 9.8602 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[55] | 2019 | EA | 0.76077500 | 0.32302100 | 53.71867900 | 0.036377000 | 1.481108000 | - | 9.8602 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[56] | 2019 | EA | 0.76077450 | 0.32300180 | 53.73000000 | 0.036377500 | 1.481177400 | - | 9.8602 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[57] | 2019 | EA | 0.76078000 | 0.32302000 | 53.71852000 | 0.036380000 | 1.481180000 | - | 9.8602 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[58] | 2020 | EA | 0.76076000 | 0.32314000 | 53.71489000 | 0.036370000 | 1.481140000 | - | 9.8482 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[59] | 2018 | EA | 0.76077000 | 0.32320000 | 53.68360000 | 0.036300000 | 1.520800000 | - | 9.8600 × 10${}^{-5}$ |

[60] | 2018 | EA | 0.76078700 | 0.31068300 | 52.88971000 | 0.036546000 | 1.475262000 | - | 7.7301 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[61] | 2018 | EA | 0.76077700 | 0.32262200 | 53.67840000 | 0.036381900 | 1.481060000 | - | 9.8602 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[62] | 2018 | EA | 0.76077553 | 0.32302083 | 53.71852771 | 0.036377090 | 1.481183600 | - | 9.8602 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[63] | 2018 | EA | 0.76069712 | 0.43244110 | 53.40180803 | 0.033410590 | 1.452456660 | - | 5.1382 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[64] | 2018 | EA | 0.76078000 | 0.32302000 | 53.71636000 | 0.036380000 | 1.481180000 | - | 9.8602 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[65] | 2020 | NA | 0.76870000 | 9.9414E-07 | 100.0000000 | 0.030966000 | 1.602000000 | 26 | 2.7756 × 10${}^{-17}$ |

[66] | 2017 | NA | 0.76072000 | 0.31911000 | 54.19241000 | 0.036290000 | 1.479860000 | - | 8.1291 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[67] | 2018 | EA | 0.76077600 | 0.32302100 | 53.71852400 | 0.036377000 | 1.481718000 | - | 9.8602 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[68] | 2019 | EA | 0.76078000 | 0.33971000 | 54.43370000 | 0.036160000 | 1.486290000 | - | 9.9185 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

Literature | Algorithm | ${\mathit{I}}_{\mathit{p}\mathit{h}}$ (A) | ${\mathit{I}}_{0}$($\mathsf{\mu}$A) | ${\mathit{R}}_{\mathit{s}\mathit{h}}$($\mathbf{\Omega}$) | ${\mathit{R}}_{\mathit{s}}$($\mathbf{\Omega}$) | n | No. of Steps | RMSE | MAE |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

[69] | AA + NA | 1.032377 | 2.517957 | 745.7122 | 1.239060 | 1.3173635 | 27 | 2.0465456 × 10${}^{-3}$ | 1.6925284 × 10${}^{-3}$ |

[43] | AA + NA | 1.0323823 | 2.5129059 | 744.71302 | 1.3001512 | 1.3171591 | 6 | 2.0465347 × 10${}^{-3}$ | 1.6923215 × 10${}^{-3}$ |

[70] | AA + NA | 1 | 2.3 | 830 | 1.3 | 1.3056 | - | 3.26 × 10${}^{-2}$ | - |

[6] | AA + NA | 1.033285 | 1.82 | 850.7068 | 1.357607 | 1.2857 | - | 5.181 × 10${}^{-3}$ | - |

[15] | AA + NA | 1.0323729 | 2.5129158 | 744.713061 | 1.2456174 | 1.3248753 | 4 | 2.046479 × 10${}^{-3}$ | 3.423077 × 10${}^{-4}$ |

[44] | EA | 1.0263 | 9.5710 | 6842.2 | 0.0298 | 1.5255 | - | 3.819492 × 10${}^{-3}$ | - |

[65] | NA | 1.0285 | 4.9614 × 10${}^{-6}$ | 1632.5 | 1.1638 | - | - | 2.6174×10${}^{-3}$ | - |

Parameter | Symbol | Value |
---|---|---|

Maximum power | ${P}_{MP}$ | 315 W |

Short-circuit current | ${I}_{SC}$ | 8.95 A |

Open-circuit voltage | ${V}_{OC}$ | 45.6 V |

Current at Maximum power | ${I}_{MP}$ | 8.45 A |

Voltage at Maximum power | ${V}_{MP}$ | 37.3 V |

Co-efficient of current | ${K}_{I}$ | 0.05%/$\xb0$C |

Co-efficient of voltage | ${K}_{V}$ | −0.35%/$\xb0$C |

Co-efficient of power | ${K}_{P}$ | −0.40%/$\xb0$C |

Nominal operating cell temperature | NOCT | 45 ± 2 $\xb0$C |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Changmai, P.; Deka, S.; Kumar, S.; Babu, T.S.; Aljafari, B.; Nastasi, B. A Critical Review on the Estimation Techniques of the Solar PV Cell’s Unknown Parameters. *Energies* **2022**, *15*, 7212.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15197212

**AMA Style**

Changmai P, Deka S, Kumar S, Babu TS, Aljafari B, Nastasi B. A Critical Review on the Estimation Techniques of the Solar PV Cell’s Unknown Parameters. *Energies*. 2022; 15(19):7212.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15197212

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Changmai, Papul, Sunil Deka, Shashank Kumar, Thanikanti Sudhakar Babu, Belqasem Aljafari, and Benedetto Nastasi. 2022. "A Critical Review on the Estimation Techniques of the Solar PV Cell’s Unknown Parameters" *Energies* 15, no. 19: 7212.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15197212