# Design and Analysis of a 35 GHz Rectenna System for Wireless Power Transfer to an Unmanned Air Vehicle

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

^{2}and 90 m

^{2}, respectively. A linearly polarized 4 × 2 rectangular microstrip patch antenna array has been designed and simulated to obtain a high gain, high directivity, and high efficiency in order to satisfy the power transfer requirements. The numerically simulated gain, directivity, and efficiency of the proposed patch antenna array are 13.4 dBi, 14 dBi, and 85%, respectively. Finally, a rectifying system (rectenna) is optimized using the Agilent advanced design system (ADS) software as a microwave power receiving system. The proposed rectenna at the core of the system has an efficiency profile of more than 80% for an RF input power range of 9 to 18 dBm. Moreover, the RF-to-DC conversion efficiency and DC output voltage of the proposed rectenna are 80% and 3.5 V, respectively, for a 10 dBm input power at 35 GHz with a load of 1500 Ω.

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Remotely Powered Unmanned Air Vehicles

#### 2.1. Proposed System Architecture

^{2}. Given this antenna size, a maximum power, ${P}_{T}$, of 27 kW can be transmitted according to the equation:

^{2}[37], and ${A}_{\mathit{eff}}$ is the antenna effective area. The impact of the Rx antenna on the UAV’s aerodynamics is not considered here as it is beyond the scope of this paper. However, a major redesign of the aircraft could be required.

#### 2.2. Selection of the 35 GHz Transmission Frequency

## 3. Microwave Wireless Power Transmission

^{2}and produces 40 kW DC power (25% conversion efficiency). Considering a DC-to-microwave conversion efficiency of 80% [47,48], 32 kW microwave power would be transmitted from the ground Tx antenna. Here, our target is to design a suitable rectenna to power the 22-kW electrical propeller onboard the UAV.

#### Microwave Wireless Power Transmission Equations

## 4. Tx Antenna Area Calculation for Different Power Level

^{2}and the beam power density is 300 W/m

^{2}[37], given the safety and security limits, the maximum power transmission capacity of the Tx antenna is 32 kW. If the area of the antenna increases, then it can transmit more power and more distance as well, as shown in Figure 4b. The area of the selected UAV is 90 m

^{2}and a rectenna of the same size can receive 27 kW RF power and convert it to usable DC power to feed the electric motor of the propeller.

## 5. Design and Simulation of Microstrip Patch Antenna Array

#### 5.1. 4 × 2 Patch Antenna Array Design

#### 5.2. Results and Discussion

## 6. Design and Optimization of Rectifying Circuit

_{L}) connected to the end of the circuit to collect the DC power, as shown in Figure 10. It has various topologies based on the diode orientation such as series [51,52,53], shunt [54,55], voltage doubler, and bridge rectifier [56,57]. A voltage doubler rectifier topology is selected for this project in order to achieve a higher RF to DC conversion efficiency.

#### 6.1. Equivalent Circuit Model of a Schottky Diode

_{D}and current I

_{D}across the diode D. These found values are further used to determine the impedance of the rectifier. A voltage source with a single frequency ${f}_{0}$ as input, ${V}_{a}=\left|{V}_{a}\right|\text{}\mathrm{cos}\text{}\left(2\tau r{f}_{0}t\right)$, is used as shown in Figure 11. The electrical behavior of this circuit can be described with the following expressions, found by applying Kirchhoff’s relations:

#### Harmonic Balance (HB) Simulation Validation

_{br}= 7 V, and the forward voltage V

_{f}= 0.6 V, at forward current I

_{f}=1 mA. Using the values of Spice parameters, the input impedance of the Schottky diode ${\mathrm{Z}}_{\mathrm{in}}$ including its series resistance and packaging parasitics is calculated. To verify the accuracy of the equivalent circuit model, the Schottky diode MA4E1317 ADS harmonic balance simulation model will be compared. The input impedance versus frequency for different power levels is calculated with the aid of the equivalent circuit model and is compared with harmonic balance simulation results.

#### 6.2. Rectifying Circuit Configuration

#### 6.3. Results and Discussion

_{L}). At the desired input power of 10 dBm, a maximum 0.0065 W DC power and 3.1 V are achieved with an operating frequency of 35 GHz across the 1500 Ω load resistance.

#### 6.4. Large Area Power Collection

^{2}, which can transmit or receive 38.4 mW for RF power at a density of 300 W/m

^{2}according to Equation (1). A suitable optimum combination of 74,000 rectenna elements can assuming, a rectenna RF–DC conversion efficiency of 80% and an array efficiency of 85%.

^{2}can accommodate 74,000 rectenna elements. The UAV is handling high power that is wirelessly transmitted via microwave while maintaining a lower operating temperature has proven effective in preventing power loss as well as component degradation. The thermal problem can be countered by applying a suitable cooling method, and then the thermal management systems are analyzed in [75].

## 7. Conclusions

^{2}and 80% to transmit microwave power efficiently at a frequency of 35 GHz. Finally, to receive the microwave power, the Rx areas are optimized to 90 m

^{2}and a rectenna is designed employing the Agilent advanced design system (ADS) software. The proposed rectenna has an efficiency of over 80% for an RF input power range of 9 to 18 dBm and a DC output voltage of 3.5 V for a 10 dBm input power at 35 GHz, feeding a load of 1500 Ω.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 4.**(

**a**) Area of the Tx antenna with different power transmission distance considering Friis’ near field equation for a beam transmission efficiency of 80%. (

**b**) Maximum power transmission capacity of the Tx antenna with respect to the area considering a Tx antenna size of 108 m

^{2}.

**Figure 5.**(

**a**) Illustration of antenna elements with 0.8 λ horizontal and 0.8 λ vertical spacing in a 4 × 2 patch antenna array with corporate feed, widths of 50 Ω (W

_{50}), 70.71 Ω (W

_{70.71}) and 100 Ω (W

_{100}) transmission lines are 0.8 mm, 0.45 mm, and 0.25 mm, respectively. (

**b**) Unit element antenna parameter are: ${\mathrm{W}}_{\mathrm{P}}-3.4\text{}\mathrm{mm}$, ${\mathrm{L}}_{\mathrm{P}}-2.7\text{}\mathrm{mm}$, ${\mathrm{W}}_{\mathrm{f}}-0.8\text{}\mathrm{mm}$, ${\mathrm{L}}_{\mathrm{f}}-1.6\text{}\mathrm{mm}$, $\mathrm{d}-1.07\text{}\mathrm{mm}$ and $\mathrm{Gpf}-0.1\text{}\mathrm{mm}$.

**Figure 7.**(

**a**) Return loss and (

**b**) voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of a 4 × 2 patch antenna array.

**Figure 8.**Radiation pattern of the proposed patch antenna array (

**a**) 3D view of a 4 × 2 array and (

**b**) 2D polar view of a 4 × 2 array.

**Figure 12.**Real and imaginary parts of the input impedance of the Schottky diode MA4E1317 versus frequency for a maximum available power level of 10 dBm calculated using the analytical equation (AE) and harmonic balance (HB) simulations. Ra = 50 Ω, (

**a**) Real impedance as a function of frequency, (

**b**) Imaginary impedance as a function of frequency.

**Figure 13.**Circuit configuration of the proposed rectenna. The parameters are L1 = L2 = 1.57 mm, L3 = 0.97 mm, L4 = 0.37 mm, L5 = 0.34 mm, W1 = W2 = W3 = 0.776 mm, W4 = 0.3 mm, W5 = 0.28 mm, C1 = C2 = 100 pF, and RL = 1500 Ω.

**Figure 15.**(

**a**) Output DC power and (

**b**) Output DC voltage as a function of the input power for different load resistance.

**Figure 16.**Conversion efficiency of the designed rectenna as a function of the input power for different load resistance.

**Figure 17.**Rectifier circuit impedance matching (

**a**) variation with frequency and (

**b**) variation with input power.

**Figure 19.**Schematics of the investigated rectenna array configurations. P is the incident RF power on the antennas. Rectenna module consists of optimum series-parallel connections with (

**a**) DC combining circuit (

**b**) power delivery.

Source-Agency | Frequency (GHz) | Tx/Rx Diameter (m) | Transmission Power (kW) | Transmission Distance (m) | Received Power (kW) | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Raytheon’s Spencer Lab-1964 [15] | 2.45 | 3 | 0.65 | 3–5 | 15 | 0.28 |

NASA-1975 [16] | 2.45 | 26 | 5.6 | 320 | 1550 | 34 |

SHARP-1987 [17] | 2.45 | 85 | 30 | 500–1000 | 21,000 | 35 |

SHARP-1987 [17] | 2.45 | 4.5 | 1 | 10 | 150 | 1 |

NICT-1995 [34] | 2.45 | 3 | 3.4 | 5 | 1.9 | 3 |

IHI Aerospace Co., 2015 [35] | 5.8 | 2 | 0.8 | 10 | 58 | 1 |

JAXA-2001 [37] | 5.8 | 1000 | 3400 | 1.3 × 10^{6} | 36 × 10^{6} | 1.1 × 10^{6} |

Kansai Electric Power Co., 1994 [43] | 2.45 | 3 | 3.8 | 5 | 42 | 0.75 |

KAIST 2018 [49] | 2.45 | 1 | 0.5 | 0.25 | 1 | 0.0125 |

Sichuan University 2019 [50] | 5.8 | 1 | 1 | 0.5 | 10 | 0.041 |

This Work | 35 | 11.7 | 10.7 | 32 | 10,000 | 27 |

Source | Frequency (GHz) | Results | RectifierElement | RF Power Level for Maximum Efficiency (dBm) | Maximum Efficiency (%) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Chiou H. et al. [32] | 94 | Experiment | 0.13-mm CMOS | 20 | 37 |

Ladan S. et al. [46] | 35 | Experiment | Schottky MA4E1317 | 13 | 34 |

Ladan S. et al. [63] | 24 | Simulation | Schottky MA4E1317 | 12 | 78 |

Awais Q. et al. [67] | 2.45 | Experiment | Schottky HSMS 2850 | 5 | 68 |

Zhang Q.Q. et al. [68] | 5.8 | Experiment | Schottky BAT15-03W | 8.2 | 69 |

Shinohara N. et al. [69] | 24 | Experiment | Schottky MADS-01317 | 21 | 54 |

Mavaddat A. et al. [70] | 35 | Experiment | Schottky MA4E1317 | 8.5 | 67 |

Chen Q. et al. [71] | 35 | Experiment | Schottky Diode | 19 | 68.5 |

This Work | 35 | Simulation | Schottky MA4E1317 | 9–18 | 80 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Hoque, M.U.; Kumar, D.; Audet, Y.; Savaria, Y. Design and Analysis of a 35 GHz Rectenna System for Wireless Power Transfer to an Unmanned Air Vehicle. *Energies* **2022**, *15*, 320.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010320

**AMA Style**

Hoque MU, Kumar D, Audet Y, Savaria Y. Design and Analysis of a 35 GHz Rectenna System for Wireless Power Transfer to an Unmanned Air Vehicle. *Energies*. 2022; 15(1):320.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010320

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Hoque, Muttahid Ull, Deepak Kumar, Yves Audet, and Yvon Savaria. 2022. "Design and Analysis of a 35 GHz Rectenna System for Wireless Power Transfer to an Unmanned Air Vehicle" *Energies* 15, no. 1: 320.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010320