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Article

National Carbon Accounting—Analyzing the Impact of Urbanization and Energy-Related Factors upon CO2 Emissions in Central–Eastern European Countries by Using Machine Learning Algorithms and Panel Data Analysis

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Faculty of Economics, Finance and Business Administration Department, “Danubius” University Galati, Galati Bvd, No. 3, 800654 Galaţi, Romania
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Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Business Administration Department, “Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati, Domneasca Street, 111, 800008 Galati, Romania
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Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, Food Science, Food Engineering, Biotechnology and Aquaculture Department, “Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati, 800008 Galati, Romania
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Faculty of Automation Computer Sciences Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Computers and Applied Informatics Department, “Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati, Domnească Street, No. 111, 800008 Galaţi, Romania
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Magdalena Ziolo, Diana-Mihaela Țîrcă and Isabel Novo-Corti
Energies 2021, 14(10), 2775; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14102775
Received: 11 April 2021 / Revised: 27 April 2021 / Accepted: 7 May 2021 / Published: 12 May 2021
The work at hand assesses several driving factors of carbon emissions in terms of urbanization and energy-related parameters on a panel of emerging European economies, between 1990 and 2015. The use of machine learning algorithms and panel data analysis offered the possibility to determine the importance of the input variables by applying three algorithms (Random forest, XGBoost, and AdaBoost) and then by modeling the urbanization and the impact of energy intensity on the carbon emissions. The empirical results confirm the relationship between urbanization and energy intensity on CO2 emissions. The findings emphasize that separate components of energy consumption affect carbon emissions and, therefore, a transition toward renewable sources for energy needs is desirable. The models from the current study confirm previous studies’ observations made for other countries and regions. Urbanization, as a process, has an influence on the carbon emissions more than the actual urban regions do, confirming that all the activities carried out as urbanization efforts are more harmful than the resulted urban area. It is proper to say that the urban areas tend to embrace modern, more green technologies but the road to achieve environmentally friendly urban areas is accompanied by less environmentally friendly industries (such as the cement industry) and a high consumption of nonrenewable energy. View Full-Text
Keywords: urbanization; energy intensity; carbon emissions; environment; energy consumption; CO2 urbanization; energy intensity; carbon emissions; environment; energy consumption; CO2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nuţă, F.M.; Nuţă, A.C.; Zamfir, C.G.; Petrea, S.-M.; Munteanu, D.; Cristea, D.S. National Carbon Accounting—Analyzing the Impact of Urbanization and Energy-Related Factors upon CO2 Emissions in Central–Eastern European Countries by Using Machine Learning Algorithms and Panel Data Analysis. Energies 2021, 14, 2775. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14102775

AMA Style

Nuţă FM, Nuţă AC, Zamfir CG, Petrea S-M, Munteanu D, Cristea DS. National Carbon Accounting—Analyzing the Impact of Urbanization and Energy-Related Factors upon CO2 Emissions in Central–Eastern European Countries by Using Machine Learning Algorithms and Panel Data Analysis. Energies. 2021; 14(10):2775. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14102775

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nuţă, Florian Marcel, Alina Cristina Nuţă, Cristina Gabriela Zamfir, Stefan-Mihai Petrea, Dan Munteanu, and Dragos Sebastian Cristea. 2021. "National Carbon Accounting—Analyzing the Impact of Urbanization and Energy-Related Factors upon CO2 Emissions in Central–Eastern European Countries by Using Machine Learning Algorithms and Panel Data Analysis" Energies 14, no. 10: 2775. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14102775

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