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Distributed Energy-Resource Design Method to Improve Energy Security in Critical Facilities^{ †}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Literature Review

_{2}minimization was one of the goals.

#### 1.2. Novel Contribution and Paper Organization

## 2. DER Design Methodology and Software Implementation

#### 2.1. Design Methodology and Equations

^{2}of the month with the lowest solar radiation for the desired location. This is a conservative assumption to improve microgrid resilience. PSH data are available from the NREL’s national solar-radiation database [32] including 25 years of solar-radiation data and several other factors such as wind and temperature.

#### 2.2. Design Software

## 3. Design Examples and Simulated Outputs

#### 3.1. Design Example 1: 24 h Autonomy without Sunlight

#### 3.2. Design Example 2: 24 h Autonomy with Sunlight

#### 3.3. Design Example 3: Impact of A:L Parameter

#### 3.4. Design Example 4: 14 Day Autonomy with Prolonged Partial PV Disruption

#### 3.5. Design Example 5: 14 Day Autonomy with Prolonged Partial PV Disruption and Increased A:L Ratio

## 4. Experimental Validation of Design Method and Software

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 4.**PV current = 0; load and battery currents were identical for the first simulated scenario without sunlight.

**Figure 7.**Load and battery currents in scenario with sunlight. ${I}_{battery}$ was positive coming out of the battery, and negative when charging the battery.

**Figure 10.**Battery state of charge over 14 day period with 50% PV disruption occurring on Day 1 and PV returning to full capacity occurring on Day 4. Battery regained full charge state at 4.6 days after PV returned to full capacity.

**Figure 11.**Battery state of charge over 14 day period with 50% PV disruption and A:L = 1.4 occurring on Day 1 and PV return to full capacity occurring on Day 4. Battery regained full charge state at 1.8 days after PV returned to full capacity. Recovery time was 5.8 days.

**Figure 12.**Laboratory experiment setup for the scenario without PV output. cyanMajor elements were identified and included AC loads, inverter, batteries, and a variety of test hardware.

**Figure 14.**Laboratory setup for 24 h with sunlight. (

**top**) Major identified elements including AC loads, inverter, batteries, MPPTs, and a variety of test hardware. (

**bottom**) Deployed PV array.

**Figure 17.**Experimental and simulated battery SOC in scenario with sunlight using experimental PV current.

Time (h:min) | DC Current (A) | AC Current rms (A) | DC Voltage (V) | AC Voltage rms (V) |
---|---|---|---|---|

1:20 | 11.23 | 0.999 | 12.54 | 119.8 |

9:30 | 11.56 | 0.999 | 12.29 | 119.8 |

19:00 | 12.04 | 0.999 | 11.88 | 119.6 |

23:00 | 12.24 | 1.002 | 11.70 | 119.9 |

Time (h:min) | DC Current (A) | AC Current rms (A) | DC Voltage (V) | AC Voltage rms (V) |
---|---|---|---|---|

21:23 | 8.90 | 0.752 | 12.68 | 119.8 |

06:56 | 8.96 | 0.760 | 12.45 | 119.7 |

11:19 | 8.60 | 0.753 | 14.44 | 120.0 |

16:05 | 8.73 | 0.756 | 13.88 | 119.9 |

18:38 | 8.82 | 0.753 | 12.91 | 119.5 |

21:07 | 8.90 | 0.755 | 12.76 | 119.7 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Siritoglou, P.; Oriti, G.; Van Bossuyt, D.L.
Distributed Energy-Resource Design Method to Improve Energy Security in Critical Facilities. *Energies* **2021**, *14*, 2773.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14102773

**AMA Style**

Siritoglou P, Oriti G, Van Bossuyt DL.
Distributed Energy-Resource Design Method to Improve Energy Security in Critical Facilities. *Energies*. 2021; 14(10):2773.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14102773

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Siritoglou, Petros, Giovanna Oriti, and Douglas L. Van Bossuyt.
2021. "Distributed Energy-Resource Design Method to Improve Energy Security in Critical Facilities" *Energies* 14, no. 10: 2773.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14102773