The Effect of the Addition of a Fat Emulsifier on the Amount and Quality of the Obtained Biogas
Faculty of Production and Power Engineering, University of Agriculture in Krakow, ul. Balicka 116B, 30-149 Kraków, Poland
Faculty of Faculty of Agriculture and Economics, University of Agriculture in Krakow, ul. Mickiewicza 21, 31-121 Kraków, Poland
Department of Economics and Enterprise Organization, Cracow University of Economics, ul. Rakowicka 27, 31-510 Krakow, Poland
Faculty of Biotechnology and Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Krakow, al. Mickiewicza 21, 31-121 Kraków, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1825; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071825
Received: 3 March 2020 / Revised: 5 April 2020 / Accepted: 7 April 2020 / Published: 9 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected paper from 6th International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources (ICoRES 2019))
Slaughterhouse waste management is an important technological, economic, and environmental challenge. Recently, more and more attention has been paid to the possibility of obtaining biogas from waste generated by slaughterhouses. The aim of the paper was to examine the effect of an emulsifier addition in the form of a carboxymethyl cellulose solution to create animal waste fermentation media based on the quantity and quality of the generated biogas. The adopted research goal was achieved based on a laboratory experiment of methane fermenting poultry processing waste. The waste was divided into two fractions: soft (tissue) and hard (bone). A fat emulsifier in a concentration of 1%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% of fresh weight of the substrate was added to each substrate sample made from the above fractions. The emulsifier used was a 55% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, since this emulsifier is most commonly used in food production. The experiment was conducted in order to determine how the addition of an emulsifier (55% carboxymethylcellulose solution) affects the hydration of fats during methane fermentation, as demonstrated on poultry slaughterhouse waste. The samples were subjected to static methane fermentation, according to the methodology of DIM DIN 38414(DIN Deutches Institut für Normung). The experiment lasted 30 days. The total amount of biogas obtained after fermentation was 398 mL·g−1 for the soft fraction and 402 mL·g−1 for the hard fraction. In the case of the soft waste fraction, the addition of carboxymethylcellulose at 1% of the mass to the biogas process increased the amount of obtained biogas by 16%. In the case of the hard fraction, no effect of the addition of emulsifier on the total amount of biogas obtained was identified. In each case, the biogas from substrates with added emulsifier contained less methane and slightly more carbon. The emulsifier added to the soft fraction of slaughterhouse waste from poultry processing allowed cutting the process of methanogenesis by over 50% while maintaining the efficiency of biogas production. In the case of biogasification of bone tissue, no unambiguous effect of the addition of emulsifier on the improvement of process efficiency was identified.