# Distribution Network Model Platform: A First Case Study

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

^{2}all around Europe. The technical information gathered in the DSO Observatory project [24] makes DiNeMo a unique tool to stakeholders in the electricity sector. Indeed, while keeping the confidentiality of the data, it provides a powerful instrument for the network construction which can be used for real network cases analyses.

## 2. Distribution System Observatory 2018 and Network Indicators

#### 2.1. Indicators for Building the Large-Scale Representative Distribution Networks

- The number of LV consumers per MV consumers is the ratio measuring the level of commercial and industrial consumers supplied by the DSO. Extremely different values of this indicator occur among DSOs result. This is due to the diverse size and population supplied by each DSO, as well as type of supplied area (urban, semi-urban, or rural areas).
- The LV circuit length per LV consumer describes the location and distance between consumers, as well as their distribution in the observed area. Higher values of the indicator refer to the big areas where population density is very small and consumers are more spread, while in small areas, such as city centers with a big population, the value is smaller.
- The LV underground ratio is calculated as the ratio between the length of LV underground cables and total length of LV network (considering both underground cables and overhead lines). Different values of LV underground ratio correspond to rural (less than 30%), semi-urban (30%–80%), and urban areas (more than 80%).
- The number of LV consumers per MV/LV substation depends on the spread of consumers in the supplied area giving an idea of the size of low voltage network below each MV/LV substation. We distinguish higher ratio in urban area with higher density and lower ratio in rural area where consumers are more dispersed.
- The capacity of MV/LV substation per LV consumer is the ratio between total installed capacity of MV/LV substation and the total number of LV consumers considering peak average power of consumers, energy efficiency of the devices and simultaneity factor depending on the size of the household, and number of people per household. Therefore, it provides an indication of the power installed below each MV/LV substation.
- MV circuit length per MV supply point is the ratio between total length of MV network and number of MV supply points, considering both MV consumers and MV/LV substations. This indicator is important for understanding the capacity for installing future distributed generation.
- The MV underground ratio is the ratio between MV underground cable length and total length of MV network, counting both underground cables and overhead lines. The value is lower for rural and higher for urban areas.
- Number of MV supply points per HV/MV substation is the total number of MV supply points, both MV consumers and MV/LV substations, divided by the number of HV/MV substations in the observed area. This indicator is of significant importance because it highlights how industrialized or commercial the area supplied by the DSO is.
- Typical transformation capacity of MV/LV secondary substations in rural areas is usually lower compared to urban areas. This difference occurs because of smaller electricity density in rural areas, as well as bigger distance between consumers.

## 3. DiNeMo Platform

## 4. Indicators Validation Methodology

#### 4.1. Varaždin City Center Characteristics

#### 4.2. Varaždin Semi-Urban Area Characteristics

## 5. Power Flow Analysis under A High Level of Installed Charging Stations

#### 5.1. MATPOWER Input Data Description

#### 5.2. Results of AC Power Flow in MATPOWER

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

Name | R (ohms/km) | X (ohms/km) | Ampacity (A) | Voltage (kV) |
---|---|---|---|---|

AL_3_50_ | 0.595 | 0.302 | 185 | 0.4 |

AL | 0.437 | 0.290 | 226 | 0.4 |

AL_3_95 | 0.308 | 0.281 | 283 | 0.4 |

AL_FE_3_1 | 0.595 | 0.345 | 170 | 10 |

AL_FE_3_2 | 0.413 | 0.335 | 290 | 10 |

AL_FE_3_3 | 0.306 | 0.330 | 350 | 10 |

Name | R (ohms/km) | X (ohms/km) | Ampacity (A) | Voltage (kV) |
---|---|---|---|---|

CU_1 | 1.116 | 0.089 | 105 | 0.4 |

CU_1 | 0.520 | 0.083 | 165 | 0.4 |

CU_1 | 0.367 | 0.081 | 195 | 0.4 |

PP_41 | 0.443 | 0.100 | 160 | 10 |

PHP_81 | 0.265 | 0.102 | 215 | 10 |

XHP | 0.210 | 0.120 | 345 | 10 |

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**Figure 6.**Bus voltage deviation in Varaždin urban area with 0% of electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE) (

**a**) and with 10% of EVSE (

**b**).

Indicator | Average Value | Median Value | Min Value | Max Value |
---|---|---|---|---|

1. Number of LV consumers per MV consumers | 671 | 401 | 22 | 1946 |

2. LV circuit length per LV consumer (km/LV consumer) | 0.03 | 0.025 | 0.012 | 0.16 |

3. LV underground ratio (%) | 66 | 75 | 11 | 99 |

4. Number of LV consumer per MV/LV substation | 86 | 76 | 17 | 230 |

5. MV/LV substation capacity per LV consumer (kVA/LV consumer) | 4.76 | 3.88 | 2.1 | 13 |

6. MV circuit length per MV supply point (km/MV supply point) | 1.06 | 1.04 | 0.54 | 1.77 |

7. MV underground ratio (%) | 59 | 61 | 10 | 100 |

8. Number of MV supply points per HV/MV substation | 155 | 127 | 33 | 460 |

Indicator 9. | Common Values |
---|---|

Typical transformation capacity of MV/LV secondary substation in urban areas (kVA) | 400,630,1000 |

Typical transformation capacity of MV/LV secondary substation in rural areas (kVA) | 50,100,250,400,630 |

Indicator | DSO_U_Varaz | DiNeMo_U_Varaz | DSO_Croatia | DiNeMo_Croatia |
---|---|---|---|---|

1. Number of LV consumers per MV consumers | 723 | 791 | 1077 | 1213 |

2. LV circuit length per LV consumer (km/LV consumer) | 0.020 | 0.018 | 0.041 | 0.015 |

3. LV underground ratio (%) | 46% | 39% | 30% | 29% |

4. Number of LV consumer per MV/LV substation | 90.9 | 96 | 92.5 | 107 |

5. MV/LV substation capacity per LV consumer (kVA/LV consumer) | 5.22 | 5.57 | 3.69 | 5.64 |

6. MV circuit length per MV supply point (km/MV supply point) | 0.90 | 1.12 | 1.48 | 1.2 |

7. MV underground ratio (%) | 62% | 95% | 43% | 97% |

8. Number of MV supply points per HV/MV substation | 69 | 33 | 105 | 37 |

Indicator | DSO | DiNeMo |
---|---|---|

9. Typical transformation capacity of MV/LV secondary substation in urban areas (kVA) | 630 | 400, 630 |

Indicator | DSO_S_Var | DiNeMo_S_Varaz |
---|---|---|

1. Number of LV consumers per MV consumers | 723 | 672 |

2. LV circuit length per LV consumer (km/LV consumer) | 0.020 | 0.013 |

3. LV underground ratio (%) | 46% | 41% |

4. Number of LV consumer per MV/LV substation | 90.9 | 106 |

5. MV/LV substation capacity per LV consumer (kVA/LV consumer) | 5.22 | 5.52 |

6. MV circuit length per MV supply point (km/MV supply point) | 0.90 | 0.90 |

7. MV underground ratio (%) | 62% | 51% |

8. Number of MV supply points per HV/MV substation | 69 | 25 |

Indicator | DSO | DiNeMo |
---|---|---|

9. Typical transformation capacity of MV/LV secondary substation in urban areas (kVA) | 630 | 630,1000 |

Number of consumers per building | 1 | 3 | 5 | 7 |
---|---|---|---|---|

Percentage % | 24.34 | 64.51 | 9.71 | 1.44 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Grzanic, M.; Flammini, M.G.; Prettico, G. Distribution Network Model Platform: A First Case Study. *Energies* **2019**, *12*, 4079.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en12214079

**AMA Style**

Grzanic M, Flammini MG, Prettico G. Distribution Network Model Platform: A First Case Study. *Energies*. 2019; 12(21):4079.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en12214079

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Grzanic, Mirna, Marco Giacomo Flammini, and Giuseppe Prettico. 2019. "Distribution Network Model Platform: A First Case Study" *Energies* 12, no. 21: 4079.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en12214079