Next Article in Journal
Parameter Matching and Optimization of a Hybrid Type DC SFCL Considering the Transient Characteristics of VSC-Based DC Systems
Previous Article in Journal
Mitigation Strategy for Duck Curve in High Photovoltaic Penetration Power System Using Concentrating Solar Power Station
Article

Quantifying the Measurement Error on England and Wales EPC Ratings

1
UCL Energy Institute, University College London, London WC1H 0NN, UK
2
Department of Statistical Science, University College London, London WC1H 0NN, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(18), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12183523
Received: 26 July 2019 / Revised: 2 September 2019 / Accepted: 8 September 2019 / Published: 13 September 2019
Domestic Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) are used in the UK to provide energy efficiency ratings for use in policy and investment decisions on individual dwellings and at a stock level. There is evidence that the process of creating an EPC introduces measurement error such that repeat assessments of the same property give different ratings, compromising their reliability. This study presents a novel error analysis to estimate the size of this effect, using repeated EPC assessments of 1.6 million existing dwellings in England and Wales. A statistical model of how measurement error contributes to variation between repeated measurements is set out, and exploratory data analysis is used to decide how to apply this model to the available data. The results predict that the one standard deviation measurement error decreases with EPC rating, from around ± 8.0 EPC points on a rating of 35 to ±2.4 on a rating of 85. This predicted error is higher than the limit recommended in UK guidance except in very efficient buildings; it can also result in dwellings being rated in the wrong EPC band, for example it was estimated that 24% of band D homes are rated as band C. View Full-Text
Keywords: uncertainty; energy performance certificates; domestic buildings; dataset; mathematical modelling uncertainty; energy performance certificates; domestic buildings; dataset; mathematical modelling
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Crawley, J.; Biddulph, P.; Northrop, P.J.; Wingfield, J.; Oreszczyn, T.; Elwell, C. Quantifying the Measurement Error on England and Wales EPC Ratings. Energies 2019, 12, 3523. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12183523

AMA Style

Crawley J, Biddulph P, Northrop PJ, Wingfield J, Oreszczyn T, Elwell C. Quantifying the Measurement Error on England and Wales EPC Ratings. Energies. 2019; 12(18):3523. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12183523

Chicago/Turabian Style

Crawley, Jenny, Phillip Biddulph, Paul J. Northrop, Jez Wingfield, Tadj Oreszczyn, and Cliff Elwell. 2019. "Quantifying the Measurement Error on England and Wales EPC Ratings" Energies 12, no. 18: 3523. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12183523

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop