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Review of Voltage and Frequency Grid Code Specifications for Electrical Energy Storage Applications

1
School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
2
UK National Grid, Warwick CV34 6DA, UK
3
School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2018, 11(5), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051070
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
To ensure the stability and reliability of the power network operation, a number of Grid Codes have been used to specify the technical boundary requirements for different countries and areas. With the fast propagation of the usage of Electrical Energy Storage (EES), it is quite important to study how the EES technology with its development can help the Grid Code realization. The paper provides a comprehensive study of Great Britain (GB) Grid Code mainly on its voltage and frequency relevant specifications, with a comparison of other countries’ grid operation regulations. The different types of EES technologies with their technical characteristics in relation to meeting Grid Codes have been analysed. From the study, apart from direct grid-connection to provide grid services on meeting Grid Codes, EES devices with different technologies can be used as auxiliary units in fossil-fuelled power plants and renewable generation to support the whole systems’ operation. The paper also evaluates the potentials of different types of EES technologies for implementing the relevant applications based on the Grid Codes. Some recommendations are given at the end, for the EES technology development to help the Grid Code realization and to support the relevant applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrical power system; grid code; electrical energy storage; electricity generation; frequency response and control; low voltage ride through; grid-connection electrical power system; grid code; electrical energy storage; electricity generation; frequency response and control; low voltage ride through; grid-connection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Luo, X.; Wang, J.; Wojcik, J.D.; Wang, J.; Li, D.; Draganescu, M.; Li, Y.; Miao, S. Review of Voltage and Frequency Grid Code Specifications for Electrical Energy Storage Applications. Energies 2018, 11, 1070. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051070

AMA Style

Luo X, Wang J, Wojcik JD, Wang J, Li D, Draganescu M, Li Y, Miao S. Review of Voltage and Frequency Grid Code Specifications for Electrical Energy Storage Applications. Energies. 2018; 11(5):1070. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051070

Chicago/Turabian Style

Luo, Xing, Jihong Wang, Jacek D. Wojcik, Jianguo Wang, Decai Li, Mihai Draganescu, Yaowang Li, and Shihong Miao. 2018. "Review of Voltage and Frequency Grid Code Specifications for Electrical Energy Storage Applications" Energies 11, no. 5: 1070. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051070

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