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Recent Advances in Photodynamic Imaging and Therapy in Hepatobiliary Malignancies: Clinical and Experimental Aspects

Division of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreas Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Miyazaki Faculty of Medicine, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692, Japan
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Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4067-4079; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28050345
Received: 9 September 2021 / Revised: 27 September 2021 / Accepted: 28 September 2021 / Published: 11 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatobiliary Malignancies: Recent Advancements and Future Directions)
The therapeutic and diagnostic modalities of light are well known, and derivative photodynamic reactions with photosensitizers (PSs), specific wavelengths of light exposure and the existence of tissue oxygen have been developed since the 20th century. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective local treatment for cancer-specific laser ablation in malignancies of some organs, including the bile duct. Although curability for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is expected with surgery alone, patients with unresectable or remnant biliary cancer need other effective palliative therapies, including PDT. The effectiveness of PDT for cholangiocarcinoma has been reported experimentally or clinically, but it is not the standard option now due to problems with accompanied photosensitivity, limited access routes of irradiation, tumor hypoxia, etc. Novel derivative treatments such as photoimmunotherapy have not been applied in the field hepatobiliary system. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) has been more widely applied in the clinical diagnoses of liver malignancies or liver vascularization. At present, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and indocyanine green (ICG) dyes are mainly used as PSs in PDD, and ICG has been applied for detecting liver malignancies or vascularization. However, no ideal tools for combining both PDD and PDT for solid tumors, including hepatobiliary malignancies, have been clinically developed. To proceed with experimental and clinical trials, it is necessary to clarify the effective photosensitive drugs that are feasible for photochemical diagnosis and local treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic reaction; photodynamic eye imaging; photodynamic therapy; hepatobiliary malignancies photodynamic reaction; photodynamic eye imaging; photodynamic therapy; hepatobiliary malignancies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nanashima, A.; Hiyoshi, M.; Imamura, N.; Yano, K.; Hamada, T.; Kai, K. Recent Advances in Photodynamic Imaging and Therapy in Hepatobiliary Malignancies: Clinical and Experimental Aspects. Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28, 4067-4079. https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28050345

AMA Style

Nanashima A, Hiyoshi M, Imamura N, Yano K, Hamada T, Kai K. Recent Advances in Photodynamic Imaging and Therapy in Hepatobiliary Malignancies: Clinical and Experimental Aspects. Current Oncology. 2021; 28(5):4067-4079. https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28050345

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nanashima, Atsushi, Masahide Hiyoshi, Naoya Imamura, Koichi Yano, Takeomi Hamada, and Kengo Kai. 2021. "Recent Advances in Photodynamic Imaging and Therapy in Hepatobiliary Malignancies: Clinical and Experimental Aspects" Current Oncology 28, no. 5: 4067-4079. https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28050345

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