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Article

Religious Service Attendance and Mortality among Adults in the United States with Chronic Kidney Disease

1
Program for Research on Faith, Justice and Health, Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
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Department of Health Systems and Population Health Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
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University of Houston Population Health, Houston, TX 77204, USA
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Program for Research on Men’s Health, Hopkins Center for Health Disparities Solutions, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
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Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA
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Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
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The Lundquist Institute, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90509, USA
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Division of Nephrology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
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Center for Vulnerable Populations, Priscilla Chan and Mark Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
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Kidney Health Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
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Department of Surgery, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13179; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413179
Received: 8 September 2021 / Revised: 3 December 2021 / Accepted: 9 December 2021 / Published: 14 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Kidney Disease: Epidemiology and Disparities)
Religion and related institutions have resources to help individuals cope with chronic conditions, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this investigation is to examine the association between religious service attendance and mortality for adults with CKD. Data were drawn from NHANES III linked to the 2015 public use Mortality File to analyze a sample of adults (n = 3558) who had CKD as defined by a single value of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and/or albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥17 mg/g for males or ≥25 for females. All-cause mortality was the primary outcome and religious service attendance was the primary independent variable. Cox proportional hazards models were estimated to determine the association between religious service attendance and mortality. The mortality risks for participants who attended a service at least once per week were 21% lower than their peers with CKD who did not attend a religious service at all (HR 0.79; CI 0.64–0.98). The association between religious service attendance and mortality in adults with CKD suggest that prospective studies are needed to examine the influence of faith-related behaviors on clinical outcomes in patients with CKD. View Full-Text
Keywords: religiosity; CKD; mortality; NHANES; population health religiosity; CKD; mortality; NHANES; population health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bruce, M.A.; Thorpe, R.J., Jr.; Kermah, D.; Shen, J.; Nicholas, S.B.; Beech, B.M.; Tuot, D.S.; Ku, E.; Waterman, A.D.; Duru, K.; Brown, A.; Norris, K.C. Religious Service Attendance and Mortality among Adults in the United States with Chronic Kidney Disease. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 13179. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413179

AMA Style

Bruce MA, Thorpe RJ Jr., Kermah D, Shen J, Nicholas SB, Beech BM, Tuot DS, Ku E, Waterman AD, Duru K, Brown A, Norris KC. Religious Service Attendance and Mortality among Adults in the United States with Chronic Kidney Disease. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(24):13179. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413179

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bruce, Marino A., Roland J. Thorpe Jr., Dulcie Kermah, Jenny Shen, Susanne B. Nicholas, Bettina M. Beech, Delphine S. Tuot, Elaine Ku, Amy D. Waterman, Kenrik Duru, Arleen Brown, and Keith C. Norris. 2021. "Religious Service Attendance and Mortality among Adults in the United States with Chronic Kidney Disease" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 24: 13179. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413179

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