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Open AccessArticle

Translation and Validation of the Modified A-DIVA Scale to European Portuguese: Difficult Intravenous Access Scale for Adult Patients

1
Health Sciences Research Unit: Nursing, Nursing School of Coimbra, 3004-011 Coimbra, Portugal
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Doutorando em Enfermagem, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Católica Portuguesa, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal
3
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Catharina Hospital, 5623 EJ Eindhoven, The Netherlands
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Department of Technical and Anesthesia Nursing Sciences, Fontys University of Applied Sciences, 5631 BN Eindhoven, The Netherlands
5
Instituto de Ciências da Saúde (Porto), Universidade Católica Portuguesa, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7552; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207552
Received: 29 September 2020 / Revised: 10 October 2020 / Accepted: 14 October 2020 / Published: 17 October 2020
(1) Background: In Portugal, no accurate and reliable predictive instruments are known that could assist healthcare professionals in recognizing patients with difficult venous access. Thus, this study aimed to translate and validate the Modified A-DIVA scale to European Portuguese. (2) Methods: A methodological and cross-sectional study was conducted in two phases: translation of the Modified A-DIVA scale to European Portuguese following six stages proposed by Beaton and collaborators, and assessment of its psychometric properties in a non-probability sample of 100 patients who required peripheral intravenous catheterization in a Portuguese hospital. (3) Results: The European version of the Modified A-DIVA scale (A-DM scale) showed excellent inter-rater accordance scores, k = 0.593 (95% CI, 0.847 to 0.970), p < 0.0005. The A-DM scale’s criterion and construct validity was assessed through predictive, convergent, and correlational analysis with variables identified in the literature as associated with difficult peripheral intravenous access, with moderate to large magnitudes and statistical significance. (4) Conclusions: The A-DM scale is a reliable and valid instrument that can support healthcare professionals and researchers in the early identification of patients at risk of difficult peripheral intravenous access. Future validation studies are needed to test the A-DM scale’s applicability across clinical settings and in different patient cohorts. View Full-Text
Keywords: peripheral catheterization; risk assessment for difficult intravenous access; scale psychometric validation peripheral catheterization; risk assessment for difficult intravenous access; scale psychometric validation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Santos-Costa, P.; Sousa, L.B.; van Loon, F.H.; Salgueiro-Oliveira, A.; Parreira, P.; Vieira, M.; Graveto, J. Translation and Validation of the Modified A-DIVA Scale to European Portuguese: Difficult Intravenous Access Scale for Adult Patients. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7552.

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