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Breast-Feeding Protects Children from Adverse Effects of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

Department of Environmental Health, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Wien, Austria
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030304
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract

In a cross-sectional study on 433 schoolchildren (aged 6–9 years) from 9 schools in Austria, we observed associations between housing factors like passive smoking and lung function as well as improved lung function in children who had been breast-fed. The latter findings urged the question of whether the protective effects of breast-feeding act on environmental stressors or if they act independently. Therefore, the effect of passive smoking on lung function was stratified by breast-feeding. The detrimental effects of passive smoking were significant but restricted to the group of 53 children without breast-feeding. Breast-feeding counteracts the effect of environmental stressors on the growing respiratory organs. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast-feeding; passive smoking; lung function; early life exposures; protective factors breast-feeding; passive smoking; lung function; early life exposures; protective factors
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Moshammer, H.; Hutter, H.-P. Breast-Feeding Protects Children from Adverse Effects of Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 304.

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