2. Materials and Methods
2.2. Data Collection
2.3. Data Analysis
3.1. Parenting Practices for Adolescent’s Outdoor Play
3.2. Neighborhood Influences on Parenting Practices for Outdoor Play
3.3. Social Environment
“Every once in a while, we’ve had vagrants or panhandlers in the neighborhood that we’ll see. It’s just a little disconcerting not that there’s anything wrong with being poor or anything, but I don’t know these people.”—low disadvantage, white mother.
“Well my neighborhood seems to be like a safe place and everybody be looking out for each other and that’s why I think. Because three doors down, we got a police that stays there and my neighbor directly across the street from me works for (prison name). He’s a guard over there. And I just think everybody knows each other.”—high disadvantage, African American mother.
“Because we’re in a rural area they… you very seldom see a cop car… because they only have like one or two that go all… and it’s a big parish. And I think they only have two units that patrol regularly.”—low disadvantage, white mother.
“Well, the fact that we have good neighbors makes it easier to let them go outside and play. I see across the street in particular there’s a house with some young kids, and they’re out there frequently playing. That makes me feel better about letting the kids go out and play on their own.”—low disadvantage, white mother.
“I guess it does make me more comfortable because I know that we all, we supposed to be believing in one God, and I hear the way they talk, and so I know our beliefs are pretty much the same. It does make you more comfortable.”—low disadvantage, African American mother.
“You don’t want your kid around anybody. You know, you want them around someone who has the same views as you. Whether they look like you or not, you just want somebody who’s kind and considerate, who are instilling good things in your children. That’s what I want, anyway.”—high disadvantage, African American mother.
“I’m not gonna be the only one lettin’ my kids walk around by herself. It keeps you in check. You don’t wanna be the strictest parent, but you don’t wanna be the most lax parent, so, oh yeah. It’s definitely a social norm for you to say, “Okay, well I’m not as bad”. I definitely think that how other people treat their kids, especially in my neighborhood, dictated how we were gonna be. It’s just gave us the limits of what we wanted to be like.”—low disadvantage, white mother.
“I don’t feel like I have that much control and that I’m that close with my neighbors, so I just stay strict the way I am.”—high disadvantage, African American mother.
“So it’s like they keepin’ an eye out for everybody, and we know who belongs on the street and who doesn’t. I guess that’s the plus for livin’ on a dead end. So you see the same cars and the same people often.”—high disadvantage, African American mother.
“People that we knew really, yeah. It might have been maybe I would say four to five people’s homes that we felt comfortable enough for them to just go on a Saturday afternoon or whatever if we had time.”—low disadvantage, white mother.
“More get-togethers. We have lived there 18 years. We’ve never had a party or—they have these progressive dinners at some of these neighborhoods and gettin’ to know your neighbors better so that you would feel comfortable with your kids going there.”—low disadvantage, white mother.
“If you have more adults involved, we could sit outside and that would allow the kids more time to play because that way you can watch them, what they’re doing. You don’t have to worry about where your kids are with or if they’re with strangers.”—high disadvantage, African American mother.
“Most of the people that live across the street from the park are older people and they sit. They have a screened-in porch, so they’re always sittin’ outside. So if somethin’ was to happen, at least you have an adult, if they’re out there at that time that could see what happened.”—high disadvantage, African American mother.
3.4. Physical Environment
“She has to stay in the yard, because we are on a busy street. Don’t get too close to the road, that kind of thing.”—low disadvantage, white mother.
“The neighbors are really nice but again no sidewalks to walk on or anything and some of the younger people drive like maniacs through there.”—high disadvantage, white mother.
“I guess find a way to enforce the speed limit or close some streets so that there’s places where kids can play and places where you can drive and just don’t do both on the… in the same place.”—low disadvantage, white mother.
“If it was a busy street or cut through, they would’ve never been allowed to play in the front yard without us bein’ right there alongside of ‘em. I probably would’ve made ‘em stay in the back yard, so I definitely feel the structure of our neighborhood and the fact that we do have sidewalks definitely impacted them having more freedom than if they hadn’t.”—low disadvantage, white mother.
“I mean it has sidewalk. Where we’re located it’s a little harder to make a path, because some of the streets are dead ends, so to kind of make a walking path you have to go on up a street that’s a lot more busier.”—low disadvantage, white mother.
“I wish they had sidewalks and I wish they had a place, ya know, like a park where you could go to BBQ or just, ya know, go on swings or something like that. It would be nice, ya know, just ya know maybe a basketball court or something like that.”—high disadvantage, African American mother.
“I wish there would’ve been, like you were sayin’, more green spaces for them to go that weren’t private property, like at the church. It always felt like, “Yeah, the church allows it, but I always felt we gotta be super careful ‘cause it’s private property kind of thing. I wish it was a public park.”—low disadvantage, white mother.
“We live in a very rural area. There’s no playgrounds, no basketball courts. There’s really nothing for kids to do in that area. It’s more… it’s mainly like older, retired people that live there.”—low disadvantage, African American mother.
“It’s a new development so there are planned walking trails and sidewalks and a neighborhood pool and a neighborhood activity center, in the center. The neighbors are friendly and it’s designed so that people get out. People are on their porches. People are walking. There’s ponds, lots of little ponds and fountains. So people are walking, strollers and babies and dogs. Everybody has a dog so everybody’s out. It’s sort of designed for, I guess, healthy living in a sense because people are encouraged to be outside.”—low disadvantage, white mother.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Low Disadvantage||High Disadvantage|
|Safety from Crime||Mothers were mainly concerned by strangers.||Mothers were concerned by strangers, vacant lots/abandoned homes, gun violence, and theft.|
|Social Norms||Mothers felt other parents shared values and beliefs and had similar rules around outdoor play.|
People in their neighborhood are ‘family-oriented,’ cognizant of kids playing in the neighborhood when driving and would help their child if he/she was in danger.
|Mothers felt they had more strict rules than other parents in their neighborhood. Mothers did not like that other children lacked supervision.|
|Sense of Control||Mothers did not feel there were factors that needed to be corrected or controlled. These neighborhoods had organized efforts (e.g., neighborhood associations, neighborhood watch or web-application) that were a means for control.||Mothers felt that there was need for control over crime, traffic, and strangers. Control was informal through eyes on the street or police officers that lived in the neighborhood.|
|Social Cohesion||Mothers had relationships with a limited number of neighbors but trusted their neighbors and were open to having relationships. Their neighborhoods hosted organized events for neighbors.||Mothers lacked relationships with their neighbors and felt they didn’t have time to establish relationships. Most of the relationships are based around communication of what is occurring in the neighborhood.|
|Neighborhood Composition||No major differences.|
|Walkability||Traffic was not a major concern because they lived in subdivisions with traffic calming measures and had yards for their children to play.||Mothers reported living on busy streets or close to a highway or major intersection and expressed concerns about the lack of traffic calming measures (i.e., stop signs, speed bumps).|
|Access||Overall, mothers wanted more access to play areas. Some mothers reported living in subdivisions or new housing developments that had sidewalks, trails, and access to play equipment/communal areas.||Overall, mothers wanted more access to play areas. Mothers stated that children used an empty lot, church yard, or open schoolyard to play yet expressed that these locations have limitations.|
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