Biomarkers of Exposure to Secondhand and Thirdhand Tobacco Smoke: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives
AbstractSmoking is the leading preventable disease worldwide and passive smoking is estimated to be the cause of about 1.0% of worldwide mortality. The determination of tobacco smoke biomarkers in human biological matrices is key to assess the health effects related to the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The biomonitoring of cotinine, the main nicotine metabolite, in human biofluids—including urine, serum or saliva—has been extensively used to assess this exposure. However, the simultaneous determination of cotinine together with other tobacco biomarkers and the selection of alternative biological matrices, such as hair, skin or exhaled breath, would enable a better characterization of the kind and extent of tobacco exposure. This review aims to perform a critical analysis of the up-to-date literature focused on the simultaneous determination of multiple tobacco smoke biomarkers studied in different biological matrices, due to the exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and thirdhand smoke (THS). Target biomarkers included both tobacco-specific biomarkers—nicotine and tobacco specific nitrosamine biomarkers—and tobacco-related biomarkers, such as those from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, metals and carbon monoxide. To conclude, we discuss the suitability of determining multiple biomarkers through several relevant examples of SHS and THS exposure. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
PDF-Document (PDF, 228 KB)
Share & Cite This Article
Torres, S.; Merino, C.; Paton, B.; Correig, X.; Ramírez, N. Biomarkers of Exposure to Secondhand and Thirdhand Tobacco Smoke: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2693.
Torres S, Merino C, Paton B, Correig X, Ramírez N. Biomarkers of Exposure to Secondhand and Thirdhand Tobacco Smoke: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(12):2693.Chicago/Turabian Style
Torres, Sònia; Merino, Carla; Paton, Beatrix; Correig, Xavier; Ramírez, Noelia. 2018. "Biomarkers of Exposure to Secondhand and Thirdhand Tobacco Smoke: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15, no. 12: 2693.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.