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Assessment of Risk, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change by the Health Sector in Madagascar

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Ministry of Public Health, Health and Environment Service, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar
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Madagascar National Meteorological and Hydrological Service, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar
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Ministry of Public Health, Direction of Health Surveillance and Epidemiological Surveillance, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar
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Word Health Organization/World Meteorological Joint Office, Geneva 2300, Switzerland
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Independent Statistician, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar
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Ministry of Public Health, Emergency, Epidemic and Disaster Response Service, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar
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Pasteur Institute in Madagascar, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar
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Word Health Organization, Madagascar Office, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2643; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122643
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Health Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments)
Madagascar is cited as one of the most vulnerable countries to the effects of climate change, with significant impacts to the health of its population. In this study, the vulnerability of Madagascar’s health sector to climate change was assessed and appropriate adaptation measures were identified. In order to assess climate risks, vulnerability and identify adaptation options, the Madagascar Ministry of Public Health as well as the National Meteorological and Hydrological Service worked in close collaboration with a team of local experts to conduct a literature review, field surveys, and analyses of current and future climate and health trends. Four climate-sensitive diseases of primary concern are described in the study: acute respiratory infections (ARI), diarrhea, malnutrition, and malaria. Baseline conditions of these four diseases from 2000 to 2014 show acute respiratory infections and diarrheal diseases are increasing in incidence; while incidence of malnutrition and malaria decreased over this period. To assess future impacts in Madagascar, this baseline information was used with climate projections for the two scenarios—RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5—for the periods 2016–2035, 2036–2070 and 2071–2100. Future climate conditions are shown to exacerbate and increase the incidence of all four climate sensitive diseases. Further analysis of the exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity to the climate hazards suggests that the health sector in four regions of Madagascar is particularly vulnerable. The study recommends adaptation measures to improve the monitoring and early warning systems for climate sensitive diseases, as well as to reduce population vulnerability. View Full-Text
Keywords: Madagascar; assessment; health; climate trends; climate projections; climate-sensitive diseases; vulnerability; adaptation Madagascar; assessment; health; climate trends; climate projections; climate-sensitive diseases; vulnerability; adaptation
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Rakotoarison, N.; Raholijao, N.; Razafindramavo, L.M.; Rakotomavo, Z.A.P.H.; Rakotoarisoa, A.; Guillemot, J.S.; Randriamialisoa, Z.J.; Mafilaza, V.; Ramiandrisoa, V.A.M.P.; Rajaonarivony, R.; Andrianjafinirina, S.; Tata, V.; Vololoniaina, M.C.; Rakotomanana, F.; Raminosoa, V.M. Assessment of Risk, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change by the Health Sector in Madagascar. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2643.

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