Next Article in Journal
In Silico Identification and Experimental Validation of (−)-Muqubilin A, a Marine Norterpene Peroxide, as PPARα/γ-RXRα Agonist and RARα Positive Allosteric Modulator
Next Article in Special Issue
Solid Matrix-Supported Supercritical CO2 Enhances Extraction of γ-Linolenic Acid from the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis and Bioactivity Evaluation of the Molecule in Zebrafish
Previous Article in Journal
5-O-Acetyl-Renieramycin T from Blue Sponge Xestospongia sp. Induces Lung Cancer Stem Cell Apoptosis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Isolation, Structure Elucidation and Biological Evaluation of Lagunamide D: A New Cytotoxic Macrocyclic Depsipeptide from Marine Cyanobacteria
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

A Multi-Bioassay Integrated Approach to Assess the Antifouling Potential of the Cyanobacterial Metabolites Portoamides

Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, P 4069-007 Porto, Portugal
AgResearch Ltd., 1365 Springs Rd, Lincoln 7674, New Zealand
Biomolecular Interaction Centre, University of Canterbury, Christchurch P 8140, New Zealand
Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North P 4442, New Zealand
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(2), 111;
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compounds from Cyanobacteria II)
PDF [1604 KB, uploaded 12 February 2019]


The cyclic peptides portoamides produced by the cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. LEGE 05292 were previously isolated and their ability to condition microcommunities by allelopathic effect was described. These interesting bioactive properties are, however, still underexplored as their biotechnological applications may be vast. This study aims to investigate the antifouling potential of portoamides, given that a challenge in the search for new environmentally friendly antifouling products is to find non-toxic natural alternatives with the ability to prevent colonization of different biofouling species, from bacteria to macroinvertebrates. A multi-bioassay approach was applied to assess portoamides antifouling properties, marine ecotoxicity and molecular mode of action. Results showed high effectiveness in the prevention of mussel larvae settlement (EC50 = 3.16 µM), and also bioactivity towards growth and biofilm disruption of marine biofouling bacterial strains, while not showing toxicity towards both target and non-target species. Antifouling molecular targets in mussel larvae include energy metabolism modifications (failure in proton-transporting ATPases activity), structural alterations of the gills and protein and gene regulatory mechanisms. Overall, portoamides reveal a broad-spectrum bioactivity towards diverse biofouling species, including a non-toxic and reversible effect towards mussel larvae, showing potential to be incorporated as an active ingredient in antifouling coatings. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofouling; antifouling; cyanobacteria; natural products; marine biofilms; mode of action biofouling; antifouling; cyanobacteria; natural products; marine biofilms; mode of action

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Antunes, J.; Pereira, S.; Ribeiro, T.; Plowman, J.E.; Thomas, A.; Clerens, S.; Campos, A.; Vasconcelos, V.; Almeida, J.R. A Multi-Bioassay Integrated Approach to Assess the Antifouling Potential of the Cyanobacterial Metabolites Portoamides. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 111.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top