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Open AccessReview

Microalgal Carotenoids: A Review of Production, Current Markets, Regulations, and Future Direction

1
Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS), Scottish Marine Institute, Oban PA37 1QA, UK
2
Microphyt, 713 Route de Mudaison, 34670 Baillargues, France
3
Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), Centre de Cadarache St Paul Lez, 13108 Durance, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(11), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17110640
Received: 26 October 2019 / Revised: 5 November 2019 / Accepted: 8 November 2019 / Published: 13 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Antioxidant)
Microalgae produce a variety of compounds that are beneficial to human and animal health. Among these compounds are carotenoids, which are microalgal pigments with unique antioxidant and coloring properties. The objective of this review is to evaluate the potential of using microalgae as a commercial feedstock for carotenoid production. While microalgae can produce some of the highest concentrations of carotenoids (especially astaxanthin) in living organisms, there are challenges associated with the mass production of microalgae and downstream processing of carotenoids. This review discusses the synthesis of carotenoids within microalgae, their physiological role, large-scale cultivation of microalgae, up- and down-stream processing, commercial applications, natural versus synthetic carotenoids, and opportunities and challenges facing the carotenoid markets. We emphasize legal aspects and regulatory challenges associated with the commercial production of microalgae-based carotenoids for food/feed, nutraceutical and cosmetic industry in Europe, the USA, the People’s Republic of China, and Japan. This review provides tools and a broad overview of the regulatory processes of carotenoid production from microalgae and other novel feedstocks. View Full-Text
Keywords: microalgae; carotenoids; mass production of microalgae; regulations; legislation; antioxidants; feedstock microalgae; carotenoids; mass production of microalgae; regulations; legislation; antioxidants; feedstock
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MDPI and ACS Style

Novoveská, L.; Ross, M.E.; Stanley, M.S.; Pradelles, R.; Wasiolek, V.; Sassi, J.-F. Microalgal Carotenoids: A Review of Production, Current Markets, Regulations, and Future Direction. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 640. https://doi.org/10.3390/md17110640

AMA Style

Novoveská L, Ross ME, Stanley MS, Pradelles R, Wasiolek V, Sassi J-F. Microalgal Carotenoids: A Review of Production, Current Markets, Regulations, and Future Direction. Marine Drugs. 2019; 17(11):640. https://doi.org/10.3390/md17110640

Chicago/Turabian Style

Novoveská, Lucie; Ross, Michael E.; Stanley, Michele S.; Pradelles, Rémi; Wasiolek, Virginie; Sassi, Jean-François. 2019. "Microalgal Carotenoids: A Review of Production, Current Markets, Regulations, and Future Direction" Mar. Drugs 17, no. 11: 640. https://doi.org/10.3390/md17110640

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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