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Structures and Bioactivities of Psolusosides B1, B2, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, and Q from the Sea Cucumber Psolus fabricii. The First Finding of Tetrasulfated Marine Low Molecular Weight Metabolites

G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. 100-letya Vladivostoka 159, 690022 Vladivostok, Russia
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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(11), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17110631
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 31 October 2019 / Accepted: 4 November 2019 / Published: 6 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates: Trends and Perspectives)
Ten new di-, tri- and tetrasulfated triterpene glycosides, psolusosides B1 (1), B2 (2), J (3), K (4), L (5), M (6), N (7), O (8), P (9), and Q (10), were isolated from the sea cucumber Psolus fabricii collected in the Sea of Okhotsk near the Kurile Islands. Structures of these glycosides were established by two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI mass-spectrometry. It is particularly interesting that highly polar compounds 9 and 10 contain four sulfate groups in their carbohydrate moieties, including two sulfates in the same terminal glucose residue. Glycoside 2 has an unusual non-holostane aglycone with 18(16)-lactone and a unique 7,8-epoxy fragment. Cytotoxic activities of compounds 110 against several mouse cell lines such as Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells, neuroblastoma Neuro 2A, normal epithelial JB-6 cells, and erythrocytes were quite different depending both on structural peculiarities of these glycosides and the type of cells subjected to their actions. Psolusoside L (5), pentaoside, with three sulfate groups at C-6 of two glucose and one 3-O-methylglucose residue and holostane aglycone, is the most active compound in the series. The presence of a sulfate group at C-2 of the terminal glucose residue attached to C-4 of the first (xylose) residue significantly decreases activities of the corresponding glycosides. Psolusosides of group B (1, 2, and known psolusoside B) are inactive in all tests due to the presence of non-holostane aglycones and tetrasaccharide-branched sugar chains sulfated by C-2 of Glc4.
Keywords: Psolus fabricii; triterpene glycosides; psolusosides; sea cucumber; cytotoxic activity Psolus fabricii; triterpene glycosides; psolusosides; sea cucumber; cytotoxic activity
MDPI and ACS Style

Silchenko, A.S.; Kalinovsky, A.I.; Avilov, S.A.; Kalinin, V.I.; Andrijaschenko, P.V.; Dmitrenok, P.S.; Popov, R.S.; Chingizova, E.A. Structures and Bioactivities of Psolusosides B1, B2, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, and Q from the Sea Cucumber Psolus fabricii. The First Finding of Tetrasulfated Marine Low Molecular Weight Metabolites. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 631.

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