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Fighting Hypoxia to Improve PDT

1
Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés (LRGP), UMR 7274, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 54000 Nancy, France
2
M.Kh. Dulaty Taraz State University, 080012 Taraz, Kazakhstan
3
Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Macromoléculaire (LCPM), UMR 7375, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 54000 Nancy, France
4
Biologie, Signaux et Systèmes en Cancérologie et Neurosciences, CRAN, UMR 7039, Université de Lorraine, CNRS, 54000 Nancy, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12(4), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph12040163
Received: 24 October 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 26 October 2019 / Published: 30 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy 2019)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has drawn great interest in recent years mainly due to its low side effects and few drug resistances. Nevertheless, one of the issues of PDT is the need for oxygen to induce a photodynamic effect. Tumours often have low oxygen concentrations, related to the abnormal structure of the microvessels leading to an ineffective blood distribution. Moreover, PDT consumes O2. In order to improve the oxygenation of tumour or decrease hypoxia, different strategies are developed and are described in this review: 1) The use of O2 vehicle; 2) the modification of the tumour microenvironment (TME); 3) combining other therapies with PDT; 4) hypoxia-independent PDT; 5) hypoxia-dependent PDT and 6) fractional PDT.
Keywords: PDT; oxygen; hypoxia PDT; oxygen; hypoxia
MDPI and ACS Style

Larue, L.; Myrzakhmetov, B.; Ben-Mihoub, A.; Moussaron, A.; Thomas, N.; Arnoux, P.; Baros, F.; Vanderesse, R.; Acherar, S.; Frochot, C. Fighting Hypoxia to Improve PDT. Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12, 163.

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