Next Article in Journal
Synthetic Inhibitors of Snake Venom Enzymes: Thioesters Derived from 2-Sulfenyl Ethylacetate
Previous Article in Journal
Tegsedi (Inotersen): An Antisense Oligonucleotide Approved for the Treatment of Adult Patients with Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Expanding Role of MT1-MMP in Cancer Progression
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Targeting MMP-9 in Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12(2), 79;
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 18 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinases)
PDF [8639 KB, uploaded 22 May 2019]


Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are significant complications of diabetes and an unmet medical need. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in the pathology of wounds and in the wound healing process. However, because of the challenge in distinguishing active MMPs from the two catalytically inactive forms of MMPs and the clinical failure of broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors in cancer, MMPs have not been a target for treatment of DFUs until recently. This review covers the discovery of active MMP-9 as the biochemical culprit in the recalcitrance of diabetic wounds to healing and targeting this proteinase as a novel approach for the treatment of DFUs. Active MMP-8 and MMP-9 were observed in mouse and human diabetic wounds using a batimastat affinity resin and proteomics. MMP-9 was shown to play a detrimental role in diabetic wound healing, whereas MMP-8 was beneficial. A new class of selective MMP-9 inhibitors shows clinical promise for the treatment of DFUs. View Full-Text
Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase-9; diabetic foot ulcers; wound healing; MMP-9 inhibitors matrix metalloproteinase-9; diabetic foot ulcers; wound healing; MMP-9 inhibitors

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jones, J.I.; Nguyen, T.T.; Peng, Z.; Chang, M. Targeting MMP-9 in Diabetic Foot Ulcers. Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12, 79.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Pharmaceuticals EISSN 1424-8247 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top