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Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph12020051

Protective Effect of Cashew Gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) on 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Intestinal Mucositis

1
Department of Morphology, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, s/n Delmiro de Farias Street, Porangabuçu Campus, 60416-030 Fortaleza, Brazil
2
Biotechnology and Biodiversity Center Research, BIOTEC, Federal University of Piauí, Parnaíba, 64202-020 Piauí, Brazil
3
Nucleus of Research and Development of Medications (NPDM), Federal University of Ceará, Coronel Nunes de Melo Street, 100, 60430-275 Fortaleza, Brazil
4
Research Group in Natural Sciences and Biotechnology, Federal University of Maranhão, s/n Avenue Aurila Maria Santos Barros de Sousa, Frei Alberto Beretta, 65940-000 Grajaú-MA, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Drugs)
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Abstract

Intestinal mucositis is a common complication associated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer treatment. Cashew gum (CG) has been reported as a potent anti-inflammatory agent. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of CG extracted from the exudate of Anacardium occidentale L. on experimental intestinal mucositis induced by 5-FU. Swiss mice were randomly divided into seven groups: Saline, 5-FU, CG 30, CG 60, CG 90, Celecoxib (CLX), and CLX + CG 90 groups. The weight of mice was measured daily. After treatment, the animals were euthanized and segments of the small intestine were collected to evaluate histopathological alterations (morphometric analysis), levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and glutathione (GSH), and immunohistochemical analysis of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). 5-FU induced intense weight loss and reduction in villus height compared to the saline group. CG 90 prevented 5-FU-induced histopathological changes and decreased oxidative stress through decrease of MDA levels and increase of GSH concentration. CG attenuated inflammatory process by decreasing MPO activity, intestinal mastocytosis, and COX-2 expression. Our findings suggest that CG at a concentration of 90 mg/kg reverses the effects of 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis.
Keywords: intestinal mucositis; heteropolysaccharide; 5-fluorouracil; inflammation intestinal mucositis; heteropolysaccharide; 5-fluorouracil; inflammation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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de Miranda, J.A.L.; Barreto, J.E.F.; Martins, D.S.; de Souza Pimentel, P.V.; da Silva Costa, D.V.; e Silva, R.R.; de Souza, L.K.M.; de Lima, C.N.C.; Rocha, J.A.; de Freitas, A.P.F.; da Silva, D.A.; Scafuri, A.G.; de Leitão, R.F.C.; de Castro Brito, G.A.; Medeiros, J.V.R.; Cerqueira, G.S. Protective Effect of Cashew Gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) on 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Intestinal Mucositis. Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12, 51.

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