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Open AccessArticle

Detection of Dental Caries and Cracks with Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence in Comparison to Radiographic and Visual Examination: A Retrospective Case Study

1
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
2
Department of Orthodontics, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
3
Private Practice, Bestden Dental Clinic, Seoul 06232, Korea
4
Division of Orthodontics, Department of Orofacial Science, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally as co-first authors.
Academic Editor: Alireza Sadr
Sensors 2021, 21(5), 1741; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051741
Received: 28 January 2021 / Revised: 24 February 2021 / Accepted: 2 March 2021 / Published: 3 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing and Imaging Technology in Dentistry)
The aim of this study was to present an optimal diagnostic protocol by comparing and analyzing a conventional examination and the quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technique. Selected were 297 teeth of 153 patients to take QLF images and bitewing radiographs. Occlusal dental caries, proximal dental caries and cracks were evaluated and scored using QLF, X-ray and/or visual criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of a receiver operating characteristic analysis were calculated. Two fluorescence parameters (|ΔFmax| and ΔRmax) were utilized to evaluate the fluorescence pattern according to the severity of lesions based on QLF or X-ray criteria. QLF showed higher scores for detecting occlusal dental caries and cracks than the conventional method. ΔRmax increased more clearly than ΔFmax did with occlusal dental caries. The |ΔFmax| values of occlusal dental caries, proximal dental caries and cracks showed good AUC levels (0.84, 0.81 and 0.83, respectively). The ΔRmax of occlusal dental caries showed the highest AUC (0.91) and the ΔRmax of proximal dental caries showed a fail level (0.59) compared to bitewing radiographs. The QLF image could visualize and estimate the degree of occlusal dental caries or cracks. Consequently, the QLF technique may be an adjunct tool to conventional methods for the detection of occlusal caries and peripheral cracks. View Full-Text
Keywords: dental caries; bitewing radiograph; quantitative light induced fluorescence; dental crack; diagnosis; X-ray dental caries; bitewing radiograph; quantitative light induced fluorescence; dental crack; diagnosis; X-ray
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oh, S.H.; Lee, S.R.; Choi, J.Y.; Choi, Y.S.; Kim, S.H.; Yoon, H.C.; Nelson, G. Detection of Dental Caries and Cracks with Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence in Comparison to Radiographic and Visual Examination: A Retrospective Case Study. Sensors 2021, 21, 1741. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051741

AMA Style

Oh SH, Lee SR, Choi JY, Choi YS, Kim SH, Yoon HC, Nelson G. Detection of Dental Caries and Cracks with Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence in Comparison to Radiographic and Visual Examination: A Retrospective Case Study. Sensors. 2021; 21(5):1741. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051741

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oh, Song H.; Lee, Sae R.; Choi, Jin Y.; Choi, Yong S.; Kim, Seong H.; Yoon, Hong C.; Nelson, Gerald. 2021. "Detection of Dental Caries and Cracks with Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence in Comparison to Radiographic and Visual Examination: A Retrospective Case Study" Sensors 21, no. 5: 1741. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051741

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