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A Review of Insect Monitoring Approaches with Special Reference to Radar Techniques

Faculty of Geography, Philipps University of Marburg, Deutschhausstraße 12, 35032 Marburg, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ram M. Narayanan
Sensors 2021, 21(4), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041474
Received: 8 November 2020 / Revised: 9 February 2021 / Accepted: 14 February 2021 / Published: 20 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Drastic declines in insect populations are a vital concern worldwide. Despite widespread insect monitoring, the significant gaps in the literature must be addressed. Future monitoring techniques must be systematic and global. Advanced technologies and computer solutions are needed. We provide here a review of relevant works to show the high potential for solving the aforementioned problems. Major historical and modern methods of insect monitoring are considered. All major radar solutions are carefully reviewed. Insect monitoring with radar is a well established technique, but it is still a fast-growing topic. The paper provides an updated classification of insect radar sets. Three main groups of insect radar solutions are distinguished: scanning, vertical-looking, and harmonic. Pulsed radar sets are utilized for all three groups, while frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) systems are applied only for vertical-looking and harmonic insect radar solutions. This work proves the high potential of radar entomology based on the growing research interest, along with the emerging novel setups, compact devices, and data processing approaches. The review exposes promising insect monitoring solutions using compact radar instruments. The proposed compact and resource-effective setups can be very beneficial for systematic insect monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: insect radar; conservation; remote sensing; light trap; FMCW radar; UGV insect radar; conservation; remote sensing; light trap; FMCW radar; UGV
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MDPI and ACS Style

Noskov, A.; Bendix, J.; Friess, N. A Review of Insect Monitoring Approaches with Special Reference to Radar Techniques. Sensors 2021, 21, 1474. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041474

AMA Style

Noskov A, Bendix J, Friess N. A Review of Insect Monitoring Approaches with Special Reference to Radar Techniques. Sensors. 2021; 21(4):1474. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041474

Chicago/Turabian Style

Noskov, Alexey, Joerg Bendix, and Nicolas Friess. 2021. "A Review of Insect Monitoring Approaches with Special Reference to Radar Techniques" Sensors 21, no. 4: 1474. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041474

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