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A Survey of Autonomous Vehicles: Enabling Communication Technologies and Challenges

1
School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK
2
School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Fatih Kurugollu and Francisco J. Martinez
Sensors 2021, 21(3), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030706
Received: 18 December 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Connected and Autonomous Internet of Vehicles)
The Department of Transport in the United Kingdom recorded 25,080 motor vehicle fatalities in 2019. This situation stresses the need for an intelligent transport system (ITS) that improves road safety and security by avoiding human errors with the use of autonomous vehicles (AVs). Therefore, this survey discusses the current development of two main components of an ITS: (1) gathering of AVs surrounding data using sensors; and (2) enabling vehicular communication technologies. First, the paper discusses various sensors and their role in AVs. Then, various communication technologies for AVs to facilitate vehicle to everything (V2X) communication are discussed. Based on the transmission range, these technologies are grouped into three main categories: long-range, medium-range and short-range. The short-range group presents the development of Bluetooth, ZigBee and ultra-wide band communication for AVs. The medium-range examines the properties of dedicated short-range communications (DSRC). Finally, the long-range group presents the cellular-vehicle to everything (C-V2X) and 5G-new radio (5G-NR). An important characteristic which differentiates each category and its suitable application is latency. This research presents a comprehensive study of AV technologies and identifies the main advantages, disadvantages, and challenges. View Full-Text
Keywords: autonomous vehicles; Bluetooth; dedicated short-range communications; intelligent transport system; V2I; V2V; V2X; VANET; vehicular communications; ultra-wide band; ZigBee autonomous vehicles; Bluetooth; dedicated short-range communications; intelligent transport system; V2I; V2V; V2X; VANET; vehicular communications; ultra-wide band; ZigBee
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahangar, M.N.; Ahmed, Q.Z.; Khan, F.A.; Hafeez, M. A Survey of Autonomous Vehicles: Enabling Communication Technologies and Challenges. Sensors 2021, 21, 706. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030706

AMA Style

Ahangar MN, Ahmed QZ, Khan FA, Hafeez M. A Survey of Autonomous Vehicles: Enabling Communication Technologies and Challenges. Sensors. 2021; 21(3):706. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030706

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahangar, M. N.; Ahmed, Qasim Z.; Khan, Fahd A.; Hafeez, Maryam. 2021. "A Survey of Autonomous Vehicles: Enabling Communication Technologies and Challenges" Sensors 21, no. 3: 706. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030706

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