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Towards Clinical Translation of LED-Based Photoacoustic Imaging: A Review

1
Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
3
Department of Electronic and Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China
4
Institution of Acoustics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
5
Research and Development Division, CYBERDYNE INC, Tsukuba 3050818, Japan
6
Research and Business Development Division, CYBERDYNE INC, 3013 Rotterdam, The Netherlands
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2484; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092484
Received: 29 March 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 22 April 2020 / Published: 27 April 2020
Photoacoustic imaging, with the capability to provide simultaneous structural, functional, and molecular information, is one of the fastest growing biomedical imaging modalities of recent times. As a hybrid modality, it not only provides greater penetration depth than the purely optical imaging techniques, but also provides optical contrast of molecular components in the living tissue. Conventionally, photoacoustic imaging systems utilize bulky and expensive class IV lasers, which is one of the key factors hindering the clinical translation of this promising modality. Use of LEDs which are portable and affordable offers a unique opportunity to accelerate the clinical translation of photoacoustics. In this paper, we first review the development history of LED as an illumination source in biomedical photoacoustic imaging. Key developments in this area, from point-source measurements to development of high-power LED arrays, are briefly discussed. Finally, we thoroughly review multiple phantom, ex-vivo, animal in-vivo, human in-vivo, and clinical pilot studies and demonstrate the unprecedented preclinical and clinical potential of LED-based photoacoustic imaging. View Full-Text
Keywords: photoacoustic; LED; clinic; optical imaging photoacoustic; LED; clinic; optical imaging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, Y.; Feng, T.; Cheng, Q.; Wang, X.; Du, S.; Sato, N.; Yuan, J.; Kuniyil Ajith Singh, M. Towards Clinical Translation of LED-Based Photoacoustic Imaging: A Review. Sensors 2020, 20, 2484.

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