Designing and development of electrochemical biosensors enable molecule sensing and quantification of biochemical compositions with multitudinous benefits such as monitoring, detection, and feedback for medical and biotechnological applications. Integrating bioinspired materials and electrochemical techniques promote specific, rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive biosensing platforms for (e.g., point-of-care testing). The selection of biomaterials to decorate a biosensor surface is a critical issue as it strongly affects selectivity and sensitivity. In this context, smart biomaterials with the intrinsic self-assemble capability like bacterial surface (S-) layer proteins are of paramount importance. Indeed, by forming a crystalline two-dimensional protein lattice on many sensors surfaces and interfaces, the S-layer lattice constitutes an immobilization matrix for small biomolecules and lipid membranes and a patterning structure with unsurpassed spatial distribution for sensing elements and bioreceptors. This review aims to highlight on exploiting S-layer proteins in biosensor technology for various applications ranging from detection of metal ions over small organic compounds to cells. Furthermore, enzymes immobilized on the S-layer proteins allow specific detection of several vital biomolecules. The special features of the S-layer protein lattice as part of the sensor architecture enhances surface functionalization and thus may feature an innovative class of electrochemical biosensors.
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