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Open AccessArticle

GNSS-ISE: Instruction Set Extension for GNSS Baseband Processing

1
Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland
2
ChipCraft Sp. z o.o., 20-262 Lublin, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(2), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020465
Received: 20 November 2019 / Revised: 10 January 2020 / Accepted: 11 January 2020 / Published: 14 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Emerging Applications)
This work presents the results of research toward designing an instruction set extension dedicated to Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) baseband processing. The paper describes the state-of-the-art techniques of GNSS receiver implementation. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Against this background, a new versatile instruction set extension for GNSS baseband processing is presented. The authors introduce improved mechanisms for instruction set generation focused on multi-channel processing. The analytical approach used by the authors leads to the introduction of a GNSS-instruction set extension (ISE) for GNSS baseband processing. The developed GNSS-ISE is simulated extensively using PC software and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) emulation. Finally, the developed GNSS-ISE is incorporated into the first-in-the-world, according to the authors’ best knowledge, integrated, multi-frequency, and multi-constellation microcontroller with embedded flash memory. Additionally, this microcontroller may serve as an application processor, which is a unique feature. The presented results show the feasibility of implementing the GNSS-ISE into an embedded microprocessor system and its capability of performing baseband processing. The developed GNSS-ISE can be implemented in a wide range of applications including smart IoT (internet of things) devices or remote sensors, fostering the adaptation of multi-frequency and multi-constellation GNSS receivers to the low-cost consumer mass-market. View Full-Text
Keywords: instruction set extension; ISE; multi-frequency; multi-constellation; GNSS receiver; software defined radio; SDR instruction set extension; ISE; multi-frequency; multi-constellation; GNSS receiver; software defined radio; SDR
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Marcinek, K.; Pleskacz, W.A. GNSS-ISE: Instruction Set Extension for GNSS Baseband Processing. Sensors 2020, 20, 465.

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