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Historical Evolution and Food Control Achievements of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Electronic Nose, and Electronic Tongue—Critical Overview

Department of Measurement and Process Control, Faculty of Food Science, Szent István University, H-1118 Budapest, Hungary
Institute of Agribusiness, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, Szent István University, H-2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
Department of Nutritional Science and Production Technology, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Szent István University, H-7400 Kaposvár, Hungary
ADEXGO Kft., H-8230 Balatonfüred, Hungary
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(19), 5479;
Received: 25 August 2020 / Revised: 15 September 2020 / Accepted: 21 September 2020 / Published: 24 September 2020
Amid today’s stringent regulations and rising consumer awareness, failing to meet quality standards often results in health and financial compromises. In the lookout for solutions, the food industry has seen a surge in high-performing systems all along the production chain. By virtue of their wide-range designs, speed, and real-time data processing, the electronic tongue (E-tongue), electronic nose (E-nose), and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been at the forefront of quality control technologies. The instruments have been used to fingerprint food properties and to control food production from farm-to-fork. Coupled with advanced chemometric tools, these high-throughput yet cost-effective tools have shifted the focus away from lengthy and laborious conventional methods. This special issue paper focuses on the historical overview of the instruments and their role in food quality measurements based on defined food matrices from the Codex General Standards. The instruments have been used to detect, classify, and predict adulteration of dairy products, sweeteners, beverages, fruits and vegetables, meat, and fish products. Multiple physico-chemical and sensory parameters of these foods have also been predicted with the instruments in combination with chemometrics. Their inherent potential for speedy, affordable, and reliable measurements makes them a perfect choice for food control. The high sensitivity of the instruments can sometimes be generally challenging due to the influence of environmental conditions, but mathematical correction techniques exist to combat these challenges. View Full-Text
Keywords: sensors; food authenticity; food adulteration; chemometrics; fingerprinting sensors; food authenticity; food adulteration; chemometrics; fingerprinting
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Aouadi, B.; Zaukuu, J.-L.Z.; Vitális, F.; Bodor, Z.; Fehér, O.; Gillay, Z.; Bazar, G.; Kovacs, Z. Historical Evolution and Food Control Achievements of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Electronic Nose, and Electronic Tongue—Critical Overview. Sensors 2020, 20, 5479.

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