Next Article in Journal
3D Microfluidic Devices in a Single Piece of Paper for the Simultaneous Determination of Nitrite and Thiocyanate
Next Article in Special Issue
A Secure Communication in IoT Enabled Underwater and Wireless Sensor Network for Smart Cities
Previous Article in Journal
Beam Search Algorithm for Anti-Collision Trajectory Planning for Many-to-Many Encounter Situations with Autonomous Surface Vehicles
Previous Article in Special Issue
Efficient Energy Management of IoT-Enabled Smart Homes Under Price-Based Demand Response Program in Smart Grid
Article

An Energy Efficient Routing Approach for IoT Enabled Underwater WSNs in Smart Cities

1
Department of Computer Sciences, Bahria University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
2
College of Technological Innovation, Zayed University, Abu Dhabi 144534, UAE
3
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan
4
School of Computing and Communications, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK
5
Department of Computer Science, Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
6
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of ICT, Balochistan University of Information Technology Engineering and Management Sciences Quetta, Quetta 87300, Balochistan, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(15), 4116; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154116
Received: 8 June 2020 / Revised: 14 July 2020 / Accepted: 21 July 2020 / Published: 24 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of IoT and Machine Learning in Smart Cities)
Nowadays, there is a growing trend in smart cities. Therefore, Terrestrial and Internet of Things (IoT) enabled Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (TWSNs and IoT-UWSNs) are mostly used for observing and communicating via smart technologies. For the sake of collecting the desired information from the underwater environment, multiple acoustic sensors are deployed with limited resources, such as memory, battery, processing power, transmission range, etc. The replacement of resources for a particular node is not feasible due to the harsh underwater environment. Thus, the resources held by the node needs to be used efficiently to improve the lifetime of a network. In this paper, to support smart city vision, a terrestrial based “Away Cluster Head with Adaptive Clustering Habit” (ACH) 2 is examined in the specified three dimensional (3-D) region inside the water. Three different cases are considered, which are: single sink at the water surface, multiple sinks at water surface,, and sinks at both water surface and inside water. “Underwater (ACH) 2 ” (U-(ACH) 2 ) is evaluated in each case. We have used depth in our proposed U-(ACH) 2 to examine the performance of (ACH) 2 in the ocean environment. Moreover, a comparative analysis is performed with state of the art routing protocols, including: Depth-based Routing (DBR) and Energy Efficient Depth-based Routing (EEDBR) protocol. Among all of the scenarios followed by case 1 and case 3, the number of packets sent and received at sink node are maximum using DEEC-(ACH) 2 protocol. The packets drop ratio using TEEN-(ACH) 2 protocol is less when compared to other algorithms in all scenarios. Whereas, for dead nodes DEEC-(ACH) 2 , LEACH-(ACH) 2 , and SEP-(ACH) 2 protocols’ performance is different for every considered scenario. The simulation results shows that the proposed protocols outperform the existing ones. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater; wireless sensor networks; clustering; smart cities; routing protocols; IoT; acoustic signals; nodes underwater; wireless sensor networks; clustering; smart cities; routing protocols; IoT; acoustic signals; nodes
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Usman, N.; Alfandi, O.; Usman, S.; Khattak, A.M.; Awais, M.; Hayat, B.; Sajid, A. An Energy Efficient Routing Approach for IoT Enabled Underwater WSNs in Smart Cities. Sensors 2020, 20, 4116. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154116

AMA Style

Usman N, Alfandi O, Usman S, Khattak AM, Awais M, Hayat B, Sajid A. An Energy Efficient Routing Approach for IoT Enabled Underwater WSNs in Smart Cities. Sensors. 2020; 20(15):4116. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154116

Chicago/Turabian Style

Usman, Nighat, Omar Alfandi, Saeeda Usman, Asad M. Khattak, Muhammad Awais, Bashir Hayat, and Ahthasham Sajid. 2020. "An Energy Efficient Routing Approach for IoT Enabled Underwater WSNs in Smart Cities" Sensors 20, no. 15: 4116. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154116

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop