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Article

Flexible Temperature Sensor Integration into E-Textiles Using Different Industrial Yarn Fabrication Processes

1
Sensor Technology Research Centre, University of Sussex Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QT, UK
2
Advanced Textiles Research Group, Nottingham Trent University Nottingham NG1 4GG, UK
3
Stretchline (Zhongshan) Limited, Goldenbell Section, Fu Zhong Lu, Shunjing Industrial Park, Banfu Town, Zhongshan City 528459, China
4
Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, 39100 Bozen, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010073
Received: 29 November 2019 / Revised: 16 December 2019 / Accepted: 17 December 2019 / Published: 21 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible and Stretchable Electronic Sensors)
Textiles enhanced with thin-film flexible sensors are well-suited for unobtrusive monitoring of skin parameters due to the sensors’ high conformability. These sensors can be damaged if they are attached to the surface of the textile, also affecting the textiles’ aesthetics and feel. We investigate the effect of embedding flexible temperature sensors within textile yarns, which adds a layer of protection to the sensor. Industrial yarn manufacturing techniques including knit braiding, braiding, and double covering were utilised to identify an appropriate incorporation technique. The thermal time constants recorded by all three sensing yarns was <10 s. Simultaneously, effective sensitivity only decreased by a maximum of 14% compared to the uncovered sensor. This is due to the sensor being positioned within the yarn instead of being in direct contact with the measured surface. These sensor yarns were not affected by bending and produced repeatable measurements. The double covering method was observed to have the least impact on the sensors’ performance due to the yarn’s smaller dimensions. Finally, a sensing yarn was incorporated in an armband and used to measure changes in skin temperature. The demonstrated textile integration techniques for flexible sensors using industrial yarn manufacturing processes enable large-scale smart textile fabrication. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic textiles; E-textiles; flexible electronics; wearable electronics; smart textiles; temperature sensing; resistance temperature detectors (RTD); sensor integration electronic textiles; E-textiles; flexible electronics; wearable electronics; smart textiles; temperature sensing; resistance temperature detectors (RTD); sensor integration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lugoda, P.; Costa, J.C.; Oliveira, C.; Garcia-Garcia, L.A.; Wickramasinghe, S.D.; Pouryazdan, A.; Roggen, D.; Dias, T.; Münzenrieder, N. Flexible Temperature Sensor Integration into E-Textiles Using Different Industrial Yarn Fabrication Processes. Sensors 2020, 20, 73. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010073

AMA Style

Lugoda P, Costa JC, Oliveira C, Garcia-Garcia LA, Wickramasinghe SD, Pouryazdan A, Roggen D, Dias T, Münzenrieder N. Flexible Temperature Sensor Integration into E-Textiles Using Different Industrial Yarn Fabrication Processes. Sensors. 2020; 20(1):73. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010073

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lugoda, Pasindu, Julio C. Costa, Carlos Oliveira, Leonardo A. Garcia-Garcia, Sanjula D. Wickramasinghe, Arash Pouryazdan, Daniel Roggen, Tilak Dias, and Niko Münzenrieder. 2020. "Flexible Temperature Sensor Integration into E-Textiles Using Different Industrial Yarn Fabrication Processes" Sensors 20, no. 1: 73. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010073

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