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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle

Embedded Smart Antenna for Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E) of Moisture Content and Deterioration in Concrete

1
Built Environment & Sustainable Technology (BEST) Research Institute, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
2
Sensor City Liverpool Limited, Liverpool L3 5LJ, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030547
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RF Technology for Sensor Applications)
Concrete failure will lead to serious safety concerns in the performance of a building structure. It is one of the biggest challenges for engineers to inspect and maintain the quality of concrete throughout the service years in order to prevent structural deterioration. To date, a lot of research is ongoing to develop different instruments to inspect concrete quality. Detection of moisture ingress is important in the structural monitoring of concrete. This paper presents a novel sensing technique using a smart antenna for the non-destructive evaluation of moisture content and deterioration inspection in concrete blocks. Two different standard concrete samples (United Kingdom and Malaysia) were investigated in this research. An electromagnetic (EM) sensor was designed and embedded inside the concrete to detect the moisture content within the structure. In addition, CST microwave studio was used to validate the theoretical model of the EM sensor against the test data. The results demonstrated that the EM sensor at 2.45 GHz is capable of detecting the moisture content in the concrete with linear regression of R2 = 0.9752. Furthermore, identification of different mix ratios of concrete were successfully demonstrated in this paper. In conclusion, the EM sensor is capable of detecting moisture content non-destructively and could be a potential technique for maintenance and quality control of the building performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: concrete block; CST; deterioration; moisture content; NDT&E; smart antenna concrete block; CST; deterioration; moisture content; NDT&E; smart antenna
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MDPI and ACS Style

Teng, K.H.; Kot, P.; Muradov, M.; Shaw, A.; Hashim, K.; Gkantou, M.; Al-Shamma’a, A. Embedded Smart Antenna for Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E) of Moisture Content and Deterioration in Concrete. Sensors 2019, 19, 547.

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