With the rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicle in space exploration and national defense, large-scale wireless sensor network (WSN) became an important and effective technology. It may require highly accurate locating for the nodes in some real applications. The dynamic node topology control of a large-scale WSN in an unmanned region becomes a hot research topic recently, which helps improve the system connectivity and coverage. In this paper, a hybrid optimization based on two different virtual force algorithms inspired by the interactions among physical sensor nodes is proposed to address the self-consistent node deployment in a large-scale WSN. At the early stage, the deployment algorithm was to deploy the sensor nodes by leveraging the particle motions in dusty plasma to achieve the hexagonal topology of the so-called “Yukawa crystal”. After that, another virtual exchange force model was combined to present a hybrid optimization, which could yield perfect hexagonal topology, better network uniformity, higher coverage rate, and faster convergence speed. The influence of node position, velocity, and acceleration during the node deployment stage on the final network topology are carefully discussed for this scheme. It can aid engineers to control the network topology for a large number of wireless sensors with affordable system cost by choosing suitable parameters based on physical environments or application scenarios in the near future.
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