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Open AccessArticle

Characteristics, Usability, and Users Experience of a System Combining Cognitive and Physical Therapy in a Virtual Environment: Positive Bike

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Applied Technology for Neuro-Psychology Lab, I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Auxologico Italiano, 20149 Milano, Italy
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Industrial Technologies and Automation, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 20133 Milano, Italy
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Department of Basic Psychology, Clinic and Psychobiology, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071 Castellón, Spain
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Department of Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 20123 Milano, Italy
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Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
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Department of Geriatrics and Cardiovascular Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Auxologico Italiano, 20149 Milano, Italy
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Nursing Home Monsignor Bicchierai, I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Auxologico Italiano, 20149 Milano, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2343; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072343
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Psychophysiology and Mental Health)
We present the architecture and usability evaluation of virtual reality system—“Positive Bike”—designed for improving cognitive and motor conditions in frail elderly patients. The system consists of a cycle-ergometer integrated in an immersive virtual reality system (CAVE) which allows combining motor and cognitive exercises according to a “dual-task” paradigm. We tested the usability and user’s experience of the prototype in a pilot evaluation study that involved five elderly patients. The prototype was tested in one-session training to understand the limitations and areas for improvement of our system. The evaluation consisted in (i) usability assessment using the system usability scale; (ii) evaluation of user’s engagement using the flow state scale; and (iii) expert evaluation involving interviews with domain experts. Results showed a good usability, both for system usability scale and the semi-structured interview. The level of flow (i.e., enjoyment with the task at hand) measured using the short flow state scale, was also high. Analysis of semi-structured interview carried out with domain experts provided further indications to improve the system. Overall, these findings show that, despite some limitations, the system is usable and provides an enjoyable user’s experience. View Full-Text
Keywords: virtual reality; rehabilitation; ageing; frailty; usability; UX virtual reality; rehabilitation; ageing; frailty; usability; UX
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Pedroli, E.; Greci, L.; Colombo, D.; Serino, S.; Cipresso, P.; Arlati, S.; Mondellini, M.; Boilini, L.; Giussani, V.; Goulene, K.; Agostoni, M.; Sacco, M.; Stramba-Badiale, M.; Riva, G.; Gaggioli, A. Characteristics, Usability, and Users Experience of a System Combining Cognitive and Physical Therapy in a Virtual Environment: Positive Bike. Sensors 2018, 18, 2343.

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