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Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1544;

Biological Oscillators in Nanonetworks—Opportunities and Challenges

School of Electronics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, 93187 Lulea, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 13 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)


One of the major issues in molecular communication-based nanonetworks is the provision and maintenance of a common time knowledge. To stay true to the definition of molecular communication, biological oscillators are the potential solutions to achieve that goal as they generate oscillations through periodic fluctuations in the concentrations of molecules. Through the lens of a communication systems engineer, the scope of this survey is to explicitly classify, for the first time, existing biological oscillators based on whether they are found in nature or not, to discuss, in a tutorial fashion, the main principles that govern the oscillations in each oscillator, and to analyze oscillator parameters that are most relevant to communication engineer researchers. In addition, the survey highlights and addresses the key open research issues pertaining to several physical aspects of the oscillators and the adoption and implementation of the oscillators to nanonetworks. Moreover, key research directions are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanonetworks; molecular communication; biological oscillators; clocks; survey nanonetworks; molecular communication; biological oscillators; clocks; survey

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Shitiri, E.; Vasilakos, A.V.; Cho, H.-S. Biological Oscillators in Nanonetworks—Opportunities and Challenges. Sensors 2018, 18, 1544.

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