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Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3718; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113718

On-Demand LoRa: Asynchronous TDMA for Energy Efficient and Low Latency Communication in IoT

1
Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, Povo, 38123 Trento, Italy
2
Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract

Energy efficiency is crucial in the design of battery-powered end devices, such as smart sensors for the Internet of Things applications. Wireless communication between these distributed smart devices consumes significant energy, and even more when data need to reach several kilometers in distance. Low-power and long-range communication technologies such as LoRaWAN are becoming popular in IoT applications. However, LoRaWAN has drawbacks in terms of (i) data latency; (ii) limited control over the end devices by the gateway; and (iii) high rate of packet collisions in a dense network. To overcome these drawbacks, we present an energy-efficient network architecture and a high-efficiency on-demand time-division multiple access (TDMA) communication protocol for IoT improving both the energy efficiency and the latency of standard LoRa networks. We combine the capabilities of short-range wake-up radios to achieve ultra-low power states and asynchronous communication together with the long-range connectivity of LoRa. The proposed approach still works with the standard LoRa protocol, but improves performance with an on-demand TDMA. Thanks to the proposed network and protocol, we achieve a packet delivery ratio of 100% by eliminating the possibility of packet collisions. The network also achieves a round-trip latency on the order of milliseconds with sensing devices dissipating less than 46 mJ when active and 1.83 μ W during periods of inactivity and can last up to three years on a 1200-mAh lithium polymer battery. View Full-Text
Keywords: wake-up radio; wake-up receiver; LoRa; Internet of Things; wireless sensor networks; cyber-physical systems; test-bed and trials wake-up radio; wake-up receiver; LoRa; Internet of Things; wireless sensor networks; cyber-physical systems; test-bed and trials
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Piyare, R.; Murphy, A.L.; Magno, M.; Benini, L. On-Demand LoRa: Asynchronous TDMA for Energy Efficient and Low Latency Communication in IoT. Sensors 2018, 18, 3718.

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