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Open AccessArticle

An Enhanced Method to Estimate Heart Rate from Seismocardiography via Ensemble Averaging of Body Movements at Six Degrees of Freedom

1
Department of Emotion Engineering, University of Sangmyung, Seoul 03016, Korea
2
Department of Intelligence Informatics Engineering, University of Sangmyung, Seoul 03016, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(1), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010238
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 14 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
Continuous cardiac monitoring has been developed to evaluate cardiac activity outside of clinical environments due to the advancement of novel instruments. Seismocardiography (SCG) is one of the vital components that could develop such a monitoring system. Although SCG has been presented with a lower accuracy, this novel cardiac indicator has been steadily proposed over traditional methods such as electrocardiography (ECG). Thus, it is necessary to develop an enhanced method by combining the significant cardiac indicators. In this study, the six-axis signals of accelerometer and gyroscope were measured and integrated by the L2 normalization and multi-dimensional kineticardiography (MKCG) approaches, respectively. The waveforms of accelerometer and gyroscope were standardized and combined via ensemble averaging, and the heart rate was calculated from the dominant frequency. Thirty participants (15 females) were asked to stand or sit in relaxed and aroused conditions. Their SCG was measured during the task. As a result, proposed method showed higher accuracy than traditional SCG methods in all measurement conditions. The three main contributions are as follows: (1) the ensemble averaging enhanced heart rate estimation with the benefits of the six-axis signals; (2) the proposed method was compared with the previous SCG method that employs fewer-axis; and (3) the method was tested in various measurement conditions for a more practical application. View Full-Text
Keywords: accelerometer; gyroscope; heart rate measurement; seismocardiography (SCG); wearable device; ensemble averaging accelerometer; gyroscope; heart rate measurement; seismocardiography (SCG); wearable device; ensemble averaging
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Lee, H.; Lee, H.; Whang, M. An Enhanced Method to Estimate Heart Rate from Seismocardiography via Ensemble Averaging of Body Movements at Six Degrees of Freedom. Sensors 2018, 18, 238.

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